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Medicine : an exhibition of books relating to medicine and surgery from the collection formed by J.K. Lilly. An Exhibition: a machine-readable transcription

Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)

Transcribed from:

Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington). Randall, David A. , Bennett, J. Q. Medicine : an exhibition of books relating to medicine and surgery from the collection formed by J.K. Lilly. Lilly Library, Bloomington, IN, 1966. 100 p. : ill., facsims. ; 28 cm.

Lilly Library call number: Z688.M4 I6 1966


An exhibition of books
relating to medicine and surgery
from the collection
formed by
J. K. Lilly



J. K. Lilly's interest in collecting medical books in their original appearances budded early but flowered late. It was not too late, however, for him to acquire, at what now seem modest sums, a distinguished group, remarkable not only for their importance but also for their fine condition.

He showed some interest in this field from the very beginning of his collecting career. It was fortunate that, at that time, he could blithely turn down Vesalius's De Humani Corporis Fabrica (Basel, 1543) and Harvey's De Motu Cordis (Frankfort, 1628) on the grounds either that he was "out of funds at the moment" or that "he would prefer to wait for a better copy" and still have second and third chances to acquire them. Today a collector, solvent or not, disregards even mediocre copies of these at his peril, although neither ranks very high among medical rarities.

Among Mr. Lilly's earliest purchases were works of Sir William Osler, for whom he had unbounded admiration. In 1937 he purchased from the writer, then at Scribner's, New York, a small collection of Osler, including a first edition of Aequanimitas with Other Addresses to Medical Students, Nurses and Practitioners of Medicine (London, 1904). This great book had a special attraction for him because, as he explained, the Eli Lilly Company, instead of giving medical school graduates a few sample bottles of pills as a souvenir of this momentous occasion, had come up with a different idea. They sent each a copy of Aequanimitas with the following letter.

Office of
Eli Lilly, President
Nineteen Thirty-Six
Dear Doctor:

Together with congratulations on your attainment of a medical degree, this volume of addresses by Sir William Osler, who adorned your profession in the United States for so many years, is cordially presented.

As the addresses by this master mind of modern medicine are read, may you catch his vision of the almost boundless possibilities of your chosen profession.

May you share with him his "relish of knowledge" and his absorbing love and passionate, persistent search for truth.

Above all, may there come to you an inspiration which will enable you to live a rich, a happy, and an abundant life.

Sincerely yours,


The results had been gratifying indeed. Over the years some 100,000 copies had been distributed, including a Spanish translation, and had incidentally provided a welcome source of income to the Osler estate.

Among Lilly's many collecting ventures at this time, his bookish interests were mainly literary and his collecting of medical works was sporadic. He twice refused offers of Harvey's De Motu Cordis, perhaps the most important work in the whole history of medicine. Though over forty copies are known, almost all are in institutions, and it is seldom indeed, nowadays, that a private collector has an opportunity to acquire it. Osler records having had five copies in his possession at one time or another. But that was another era. In 1935 Jake Zeitlin offered Mr. Lilly a copy for $2,500, and in 1937 Charles Scribner's offered him a copy on thick paper at $3,500; both were rejected on the seemingly preposterous grounds that they were not in original bindings and he would prefer to wait for such a copy.

In 1953 he secured through Scribner's a beautiful copy in original vellum for $5,500, the top price he ever paid for a medical or scientific book. This is, I believe, the last perfect copy which has been in commerce. Lilly was taking a great chance by waiting, but his patience paid off.

Through the 1930's his interest was centered largely on American medicine rather than English or continental. He acquired such works as Noah Webster's A Brief History of Epidemic and Pestilential Diseases (two volumes, Hartford, 1799), the standard work on the subject in its day, and William Beaumont's Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice (Plattsburgh, 1833), one of the pioneer works of medical research in America. At one time or another he owned three copies before finally securing one which met with his exacting standards of condition. Though a relatively common book, it is rarely found really fine, with uncracked hinges and perfect label. Osler said of it, "To the medical bibliographers there are few more treasured Americana than the brown-backed, poorly printed octavo volume of 280 pages with the imprint: Plattsburgh, 1833."

Oliver Wendell Holmes was a great favorite, and holdings include his first two medical works. The Library of Practical Medicine, Vol. VII (Boston, 1836) is the only recorded presentation copy and has a distinguished provenance, being the Wakeman-Wilson copy with an autograph letter with the rare signature "Oliver Wendell Holmes, M.D." inserted. The Boylston Prize Dissertations (Boston, 1838) is also inscribed. The famous The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever is present in its original appearance (Boston, 1843), while Border Lines of Knowledge in Some Provinces of Medical Science (Boston, 1862) is presented to James Russell Lowell.

It should be mentioned that Lilly was collecting at the same time, and in the same somewhat desultory way, milestone works in the history of science, with such emphasis as there was on mathematics. If desirable copies of important works came along, they were acquired, but no especial effort was made to seek them out.

In 1939 Scribner's published one of the first catalogues of its kind to appear in America: Science and Thought in the Nineteenth Century. In the "Introduction" to the catalogue, my Scribner associate, John Carter, who had assembled and annotated most of its contents, wrote as follows:

Of recent years, discriminating collectors have turned their attention increasingly to the first editions of those books which have in one way or another influenced the progress of science or the development of thought and human behavior. And what more natural and proper? The names of Volta and Ampère, of Faraday and Kelvin, commemorate by their everyday use the services of their owners to civilisation. Darwin and Freud have added adjectives to the language, and Karl Marx is more powerful today than when Das Kapital was first published.

The incurious and the hasty do not stop to ask why a volt is so called. The thoughtful man wonders, and finds out. The book collector goes further: he searches for the first appearance of Volta's epoch-making paper, from which every electric battery in the world today derives, and he treasures it for what it is— a cardinal document in the history of Progress.

Many of the great names, the historic books, in the history of science and thought are indeed sufficiently familiar. Any schoolboy will connect the atomic theory with the name of Dalton, the theory of the conservation of energy with that of Helmholtz; antiseptic surgery with Lister, Positivism with Comte, X-Rays with Röntgen, shorthand with Pitman, finger prints with Galton, or Zarathustra with Nietzsche. But there are many less obvious, though equally important landmarks; and others besides schoolboys might well be puzzled to say when was the first recorded case of appendicitis, what is the origin of the square root of minus one or the coefficient of friction, or who first distinguished proteins. Why is Plimsoll's Line so called? Who inaugurated modern methods of contraception? Who discovered Neanderthal Man, or the infra-red rays of the spectrum? Who coined such words as fluorescence and electron? Who was responsible for the modern system of food-canning, or the higher criticism, or the ticker-tape, or colloidal chemistry.

No one who has not dabbled in this kind of collecting can have any idea of the fascination of the search for facts and achievements, and their printed origins; the tracking down of a pregnant idea or train of philosophic thought to the mind that first conceived it. Hilaire Belloc once said of a favorite work that it was 'a book like a decisive battle'; but this phrase, a fine hyperbole when used of a piece of pure literature, might be applied with absolute literalness to dozens of books listed in the following pages.

We have endeavored to assemble here a representative selection of books and pamphlets illustrating the progress of science and thought in the nineteenth century. There are certain gaps, where some clew to the crucial book has eluded our researches, or where some desired item has proved unobtainable; but we believe that everything offered is significant in its field, whether by its direct relation to the world today or its influence upon the thought of its own and subsequent generations. This material is of a character, we believe, to attract the collector of vision, and to command the attention of those libraries and institutions which take the history of science and of thought for their province.

It was a modest catalogue, with modestly priced books (75 per cent of the items were under $25), but it sparked Lilly's imagination. In all his vast collecting career Lilly has been, above all, a "collector of vision." From this catalogue he acquired R. T. H. Laennec's De l'Auscultation Médiate (Paris, 1819), recording his invention of the stethoscope, two volumes in original wrappers, paper labels, $180, together with the much rarer first English translation by John Forbes (London, 1821—Garrison-Morton give 1834 as the date for the English translation, a rare error in this encyclopedic work); Henry Gray's Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical (London, 1858), which the catalogue accurately described as "a book rarely found in original condition," was purchased for $12 (the latest copy offered in trade was priced at £150). The famed Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace joint paper, On the Tendency of Species to form varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Species and Varieties by Natural Means of Selection, in its original appearance in the papers of "The Linnaean Society" (London, 1858), was acquired, with some reluctance, being rebound, for $60. It was later replaced by a perfect copy in original blue printed wrappers.

Fascination in books of this kind, which had influenced thought and the mind of man, grew upon Lilly as his interest in collecting literature lessened, as the writer recorded in his The J. K. Lilly Collection of Edgar Allan Poe, an Account of its Formation (Christmas, 1964). Just at this time clouds were gathering over the world and, until after 1945, he had little time or inclination for collecting anything. In 1947 Scribner's issued another catalogue, Science, Medicine, Economics, and from this he obtained some very good things, among them Georg Bartisch's Ophthalmodouleia: Das ist Augendienst . . . (Dresden, 1583), perhaps the most famous and lavishly illustrated of all the early books on eye surgery, original vellum, $335; Andreas Vesalius' De Humani Corporis Fabrica, second edition (Basel, 1555), in original calf, $350 (later replaced with a finer copy in original vellum) ; and Franz Anton Mesmer's Mémoire sur la Découverte du Magnétisme Animal (Geneva and Paris, 1779), $45.

It was at this time that he made a decision to go on to form a representative collection of the classic books in the history of medicine. But what were they? Everyone knew some of the great books and traditional rarities. Picking fifty or so of these items would be easy—getting them, of course, quite another matter.

Chief among the standard guide books at that time were Sir William Osler's massive volume recording his own library, Bibliotheca Osleriana (Oxford, 1919), and Garrison and Morton's Medical Bibliography. An Annotated Check-List of Texts Illustrating the History of Medicine (London, 1943). These were invaluable but much too comprehensive. Osler listed 7,783 items, Garrison, 5,506. Choulant-Frank's History and Bibliography of Anatomic Illustration (Chicago, 1920) was indispensable on a subject in which Lilly was especially interested and in which his collection is particularly rich. Francis R. Packard's History of Medicine in the United States (New York, 1931) was also useful.

What was needed but not available was a guide for the discriminating collector who was forming a personal, not a research, library. Lilly liked collecting by lists. He had acquired nearly all of the Grolier Club's One Hundred Books Famous in English Literature and A. Edward Newton's One Hundred Good Novels, and what he wanted was some similar guide to medical books.

Since one did not exist, he characteristically decided to have one created. There was considerable discussion of the best objective way to have this done. Lilly wryly related that he once requested a famous dealer to recommend a list of important works on another subject only to find that 95 per cent of the books suggested were reposing on the dealer's shelves. The choice finally fell on W. R. Le Fanu, Librarian, Royal College of Surgeons of England, who on request compiled a list of Two Hundred Key Books in the History of Medicine and Surgery. This distinguished librarian began his list with Johannes de Ketham's Fasciculus anatomiae (Venice, 1491) and ended it with Howard Florey's (and others') Antibiotics (Oxford, 1949). Le Fanu's list was drawn, correctly, with no consideration given to the availability of the recommended books and contained many of legendary rarity. Completion of the list was impossible, and even existing specialized libraries lacked a goodly number of titles. Included, for example, was the first edition of Marcello Malpighi's De Pulmonibus Observationes Anatomicae . . . (Bologna, 1661). So rare is this work that as recently as 1944 that eminent authority Professor F. J. Cole remarked in his History of Comparative Anatomy that no copy had ever been seen in England. Lilly had to content himself with the second edition (Hafniae, 1663), itself an uncommon book, there being no copy in the Harvey Cushing collection, while the one in the Osler library lacks two plates. But he was never quite happy with it.

Lilly set to work at quite a target. He had perhaps 15 per cent of the books on the list when it was formulated. How amazingly successful he was in less than a half decade is reflected by the fact that when he turned his library over to Indiana University in 1955 he had about 65 per cent in the editions specified and over 75 per cent in some form. For instance, for Cesar Lombroso's L'Uomo Delinquente (Milan, 1876), there had to be substituted the later edition (Rome, 1878), and for Ivan Petrovich Pavlov's Lectures ... on the principal digestive glands (St. Petersburg, 1897), its first translation (Berlin, 1898).

It should be emphasized that the "Le Fanu Two Hundred" by no means limited the collector merely to those works recommended. It simply acted as a guideline and general directive, and a very useful one, frequently bringing attention to significant works which would have been otherwise overlooked. If the recommended work could not be found, others representative of the author's achievements were sought. For example, Ambroise Paré's first work, La methode de traicter les playes (Paris, 1545), which was Le Fanu's choice to represent this great surgeon, proved unobtainable; but his Cinq Livres de Chirurgie (Paris, 1572) was acquired, richly bound in typical Lyonnaise style, probably for presentation. This has been called by several commentators Paré's chef-d'oeuvre, and Miss Doe, in her bibliography, comments upon its extraordinary rarity.

It is of interest to note that some of the most elusive works proved to be not the early rarities but those published in the last half of the nineteenth century. For example, Hugh Owen Thomas's Diseases of the Hip (Liverpool, 1875) and David Ferrier's The Functions of the Brain (London, 1876) never were obtained. There was no question of price involved and indeed, in most cases, it would then have been small. The books simply never appeared on the market. It should be remembered that works of this type, unlike literature, do not often find casual buyers who discard them after reading. They immediately pass into libraries or into the hands of specialists who hold on to them. Nor are they likely to be printed, in the first place, in large editions.

As the writer pointed out in discussing J. K. Lilly's formation of his Poe collection, he was lucky in his timing—collector's luck, if you wish. Though the great medical books were not then as available and as cheap as they had been a generation before, still they had not anywhere reached their present rarity, popularity, and price. One could still reasonably expect to have an offer of several decent copies of most desiderata within, say, a half decade, and at prices which would not require mortgaging one's home. This is no longer true. Also, a most important consideration was that there were some very knowledgeable contemporary bookdealers active in this field, experienced in both English and continental markets, who could supply material of the type wanted. The late Ernst Weil, from whom (though indirectly) Lilly obtained some of his best books, was an important source, as was the late Raphael King, and the cooperation of Percy Muir was invaluable. E. P. Goldschmidt and Davis & Orioli also supplied material. But by far the greatest part came from Scribner's.

Also, to use a felicitous medical phrase of Gordon Ray's, when writing recently of nineteenth-century literature, "prices had not yet been inflated to the point of dropsy." Lilly's entire expenditure on his medical collection was scarcely double the price of his first edition of Poe's Tamerlane (Boston, 1827), which was $25,000. Indeed, fewer than five books in the collection cost into four figures. Had he attempted to do in the decade following 1955 what he accomplished in the decade before then, it would have been proved impossible.

It might be mentioned that, though a generous buyer and seldom questioning a price if he wanted a book (though he often returned things on the grounds of condition) , Lilly invariably collected within a strict budget. He never gave a blanket order for any books on any list to be purchased as they appeared. His dealers, therefore, had to exercise discretion in the spending of funds allocated to them. In practice this meant that they offered him the uncommon books—those unlikely to appear on the market reasonably soon again—first. Generally it was on these books that a higher profit could be obtained, while the more common books which (one thought then) would always be available were often not offered at all—they could be sold next year if real rarities could not be obtained.

For example, in September, 1953, the writer sent ten desirable medical books for Mr. Lilly's consideration. With the letter was enclosed a clipping from an English dealer's catalogue offering a set of Richard Bright's Reports of Medical Cases . . . (1827-31) for £450, Lilly having purchased his set a few months before for $485 (a copy sold this year at auction for $3,500), a gentle reminder to the collector as to the moderation of Scribner prices.

Back came a typical answer.

This is a somewhat tardy reply to your letter of September 26 but I waited until the medical books came in and were catalogued before replying.

You will recall that earlier in the year I wrote you what my budget with the Scribner Book Store for 1953 would be. I have to report that with the present receipt of the ten medical books forwarded, we are now right on the button so please don't ship me anything else this year or at least not until after December 15 and then only with the proviso that the invoice may be settled during the first week in January of 1954. In this connection, I wish to proceed with the medical book want-list to the tune, as we go into the new year, of a budget of $10,000 so please don't commit me to any outlay beyond this sum until you hear from me further on the subject which may probably not be until late in 1954!

In view of the above I may not presently consider the other item mentioned in your letter of September 26.

Thank you so much, indeed, for your good offices—past, present, and future.

It is hoped that sometime reasonably soon a properly annotated account of his holdings in medicine will be printed. Meanwhile the writer lists a selection from them, limited to those he thinks are, for one reason or another—importance, rarity, bibliographical interest, condition, association, etc.—of especial interest.

It should be noted that, with two exceptions, all books mentioned in the catalogue are from J. K. Lilly's personal collection. This has since been greatly augmented by purchase and gift. The exceptions are the George A. Poole, Jr., copy of Rabanus Maurus' De sermonum proprietate, sen de universo (Strassburg, 1467?), the earliest known printed book to include a section dealing with medicine. Also Johannes de Ketham's Fasciculus Medicinae (Venice, 5 Feb. 1493-4), the first Italian edition, noted for its fine wood engravings, the first anatomic illustrations of any kind in any incunabula. This is the Dyson Perrins copy with bookplate and notes in his hand.

The Bernardo Mendel collection of Latin Americana included a fine collection of early medical books from "south of the border," beginning with Alonso de la Vera Cruz's Phisica Speculatio (Mexico City, 1555), the first scientific work published in the New World. And there have been many individual purchases. Henri Dunant's privately printed and very rare Un Souvenir de Solférino (Geneva, 1862), which was directly responsible for the founding of the International Red Cross Society and for which he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1901, is the most recent.

A notable gift was that of the very comprehensive medico-historical collection formed by the late Dr. Edgar F. Kiser, who was closely associated for many years with the University's School of Medicine. Presented by Dr. and Mrs. Bernard D. Rosenak, Indianapolis, and Mr. and Mrs. Herman P. Anspach, Highland Park, Illinois, and especially rich in early American and Indiana rarities, this beautifully complemented Lilly's holdings. It included a notable lot of the works of Beaumont, including a presentation copy of the Observations; a presentation copy of Daniel Drake's On the Principal Diseases of the Interior Valley of North America (Cincinnati, 1850-55); and the first two medical books printed in Indiana, Dr. S. H. Selman's The Indian Guide to Health (Columbus, Ind., 1836), and Buell Eastman's A Practical Treatise on Diseases Peculiar to Women and Girls (Connersville, 1845). Both works are examples of the familiar "family physician" and abound in frontier medical lore, and both are uncommon, Byrd-Peckham (Indiana Imprints) locating five copies of the former and three of the latter.

However, no books from such sources are included in the following catalogue (except the two Poole incunabula), and to that extent it does not give a true picture of the Lilly Library's current holdings in this subject. The fact that some important book is not recorded does not mean that the Library does not have it, as witness those listed above: it simply means that Mr. Lilly did not possess it. But without the books recorded here the Library could scarcely claim to have a significant collection at all.

Formal collations are not usually given, as this is not a bibliography but simply a report on one aspect of a many-sided collector's interests. It should be emphasized that Lilly chose every one of these books personally, rejecting many more than he ever accepted. The notes may, in some cases, read as though they were taken from booksellers' descriptions. If so, that's sometimes what they are! All books referred to are first editions, unless otherwise specified. The census of known copies, occasionally given, is from standard sources and is probably in some cases already changed.

David A. Randall
Librarian, Lilly Library


Subject entries have been made only for those subjects to which a separate section of the catalogue is devoted. Number references are to catalogue order, and not to pages. Titles without headings have number references in text.


HRABANUS (OR RABANUS) MAURUS. [De sermonum proprietate, sive Opus de universo.] [Folio 138 verso, here misfoliated 137] De medicina. [Strassburg: The R Printer (Adolf Rusch), 1467.]

Bound with, and following: Zacharius Chrysopolitanus. [Concordantia evangelistarum. Strassburg, 1473.] Two works in one vol., folio, early blind-stamped leather with bosses and portions of stamped leather clasps. Tall copies with wide margins, both works with initials painted in red throughout. The Hrabanus lacks the initial blank leaf, but the two terminal blanks are present and genuine. Editio princeps of both books.

Lilly Library call number: BR 65 .Z3 vault

Hrabanus' encyclopedic dictionary is the first printed book to have a specific section devoted entirely to medicine. It shares the honors of medical printing priority with a single-sheet Laxierkalendar assigned to 1457, and with Gerson's short tract De pollutione nocturna, considered to be on a medical subject although largely theological in treatment, which is assigned by Goff to "about 1466."

Hrabanus, a pupil of Alcuin, became Abbot of Fulda and later Bishop of Mainz. He was born about 776 A.D. and died in 856; his lifetime's labors as teacher, divine, and author earned him the sobriquet of Primus Praeceptor Germaniae, "first teacher of Germany." He is credited with the authorship of the hymn, Veni Creator.


JOHANNES DE KETHAM. [Fasciculus Medicinae.] In comincia el dignissimo Fasiculo de Medicina in Volgare ... . Venice: Giovanni & Gregorio di Gregorii, 5 Feb. 1493/4.

Folio in sixes (a-h6 i4), old vellum. 9 full-page woodcuts, 1 full-page schema on uroscopy. Goff K 17, one of six copies located. The others are at Huntington, New York Public, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Pierpont Morgan, and Yale.

Lilly Library call number: R 128.6 .K4 1493

The second edition of the first printed book ever to have anatomical illustrations. The first edition, printed by the same printers in 1491, was in the original Latin; the present translation is by Sebastianus Manilius. The text is a compilation of short medical treatises on uroscopy, women's diseases, the plague, and other matters, but the great value and interest of the book lies in its illustrations, probably done by Gentile Bellini. It contains one of four known examples of multicolor printing produced prior to the sixteenth century.

Choulant describes the plates at great length, pp. 116-19, but the copy he used lacked d [1], on the recto of which appears the figure of a woman with her thoracic and abdominal cavities cut open. The two later plates in the book [e 2 recto and f 2 verso] do not occur in the first edition. That on e 2 recto depicts a patient being examined for the plague, the physician holding a sponge before his mouth and feeling the patient's pulse. The plate on f 2 verso (illustrated in this catalogue) precedes the Anatomia of Mundinus, appended here to the Fasciculus as usual. In the present copy this plate has been overprinted in red, black, olive, and yellow, off register (mostly to the right) and waterstained; certain areas have been retouched by hand with an overlaying wash of brown.

The present copy is from the Dyson Perrins collection and sold in 1947 for £320. Of the first edition, 1491, Goff records four copies: Huntington, Boston Medical, Yale, and the then privately owned Louis Silver copy. This appeared recently at the Newberry Library sale of duplicate and surplus material and brought $26,600, the highest price ever paid for a medical work and within half of what Lilly spent on his entire collection.



HIPPOCRATES. [Aphorismi sive Sententiae.] Hippocratis Medici Sententiarum Particula ... . Florence: 16 Oct. 1494.

Folio, modern half calf, initial blank present and genuine.

Lilly Library call number: R 126 .H6 A65 1494 vault

The editio princeps of the aphorisms of "the Father of Medicine," in the Latin translation of Laurentius Laurentianus; one of four copies in America. The text of the aphorisms is followed by Laurentianus's Latin translation of the lengthy commentary by Galen, thus including in one book the work of the two most famous names in Graeco-Roman medicine.


HIPPOCRATES. Hippocratis ... octoginta Volumina ... nunc primum in lucem aedita ... . Rome, 1525.

4to, old half vellum.

Lilly Library call number: R 126 .H51 1525

This is the first complete appearance in print of what Osler called the corpus Hippocraticum, the collective doctrine of the greatest physician of the ancient world. Translated and edited by Fabio Calvi of Ravenna and dedicated to Pope Clement VII, it preceded the Aldine Greek text by a year. At p. XXXI appears the Hippocratic Oath, beginning, "I swear by Apollo, Physician, and Asklepios and Hygeiea and Panacea and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witness, that I will fulfill according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant." This oath is still administered on conferring the degree of Medicinae Doctor, often with the prefatory injunction, "Let each man swear by that which to him is sacred."


CLAUDIUS GALENUS. [Opera Omnia, Graece.] Galeni Librorum Pars Prima [Quinta]. Venice, 1525.

5 vols., folio, contemporary brown calf.

Lilly Library call number: R 126 .G3 1525

First printed edition of Galen's works in the original Greek. At the time when printing first attained general acceptance and commercial importance, medical science was completely dominated by the Galenic tradition, just as biology was by that of Aristotle. It was natural, therefore, that the work of these great masters, which had come to occupy in the scientific world a position hardly less important than Holy Writ, should have been constantly printed and reprinted.


GUIDO GUIDI AS "VlDUS VlDIUS". Chirurgia è Graeco in Latinum conversa. Paris, 1544.

Folio, old calf. Many woodcuts, some full-page.

Lilly Library call number: R 126 .A1 G9 vault

The translator, Guidi, was physician to Francis I of France. This book prints for the first time the Greek surgical texts of Hippocrates, Galen, and Oribasius, in Latin translation. The text is based on ancient manuscripts of the Greek originals in the Laurentian Library at Florence.

There is no doubt that the extraordinarily fine illustrations go back to the classic models and therefore display for us the true Hippocratic principles of surgical practice as preserved by the Byzantine Greeks. The woodcuts are after designs by F. Primaticcio, an Italian Renaissance artist, who in turn was inspired by the figures in the manuscripts. François Jollat has been suggested as the engraver.


AVICENNA. Libri Quinque Canonis Medicinae Abu Ali Principis, Filii Sinae, alias corrupte Avicennae ... Arabice nunc primum impressi. Rome, 1593.

2 vols., folio, old vellum, uncut. The above title is taken from the added Latin title page, which is laid in loose behind the regular Arabic title (at the back of Vol. I, since the Arabic text reads from the back forward). With the bookplate of the Prince of Liechtenstein.

Lilly Library call number: R 128.3 .A9 vault

The most famous physician and theorist of the later Middle Ages, Abu Ali al Husain ibn Abdullah ibn Sina, known as Avicenna, was born near Bokhara in 980 A.D. and died in 1037. He was the author of about one hundred treatises, most of them short; but "the best known among them, and that to which Avicenna owed his European reputation, is the Canon of Medicine, of which an Arabic edition appeared at Rome in 1593. From the 12th to the 17th century, Avicenna was the guide of medical study in European universities, and up to the year 1650 or thereabouts the Canon was still used as a textbook at Louvain and Montpellier" (Encyclopaedia Britannica).

"His Canon," says Garrison-Morton, "is the most famous medical textbook ever written. Of it Neuberger says, 'It stands for the epitome of all precedent development, the final certification of all Graeco-Arabic medicine.' "

Avicenna's great treatise was normally studied, during the Renaissance, in the Latin translation by Gherardo of Cremona, first published at Strassburg (before 1473) and frequently reprinted. This is the editio princeps of the Arabic text.


HANS VON GERSDORFF. Feldtbüch der wundtartzney. [Strassburg]: Schott, [1517?]

4to, contemporary calf. 27 full- or half-page woodcuts, one folding.

Lilly Library call number: RD 30 .G4 vault

This work contains the first picture of an amputation ever printed, according to Garrison, as well as many other instructive pictures of early surgical procedures. Gersdorff later opposed Paré's abandonment of boiling oil for the cauterization of wounds.

Collates: [4] LXXXIV ff., 1 folding plate; a4 A-O6. Apparently the undated issue reported in Bibliotheca Walleriana 3506, there described as "[Strassburg, J. Schott, 1517.]" without cited authority and probably later. BMC (Vol. 85, col. 59) records the folio issue of 95 leaves with imprint and date 1517. The folding plate is the skeleton described by Choulant (pp. 162-63), with Schott's mark but without the date or printed matter above the plate; the visceral plate (folio XII verso) is that described by Choulant at p. 165, full-length, with date 1517 in lower left corner.



GIROLAMO FRACASTORO. Syphilis sive Morbus Gallicus. Verona, 1530.

4to, vellum.

Lilly Library call number: RC 201 .A2 F7 1531

The most famous of medical poems. It epitomized contemporary knowledge of syphilis, gave it its present name, and recognized a venereal cause. Mercury was advised as a remedy.

The poem was often reprinted and was made the subject of a handlist and a bibliography in the 1930's. The first complete English translation was by Nahum Tate (1686), later Poet Laureate.

Of special interest and rarity in this field is Thomas Paynell's translation of Ulrich Hutten's De Morbo Gallico (1519) under the title Of the Wood Called Guaiacum that healeth the frenche pockes, and also helpeth the goute in the feete ..., published in London in 1540 (No.10—RC 200.6 .H9 1540).

Von Hutten, one of the most distinguished scholars and poets of the German Renaissance, suffered from syphilis. He tells in the first person of his many attempts to cure himself before he discovered guaiacum wood, which came from "that place where the langth of Amerike, stretchynge to the Northe, doth end." So efficacious was it considered in the cure of syphilis that, to quote the present work, "the physicions wolde not allowe it, perceyvynge that thyre profit wolde decay thereby."

In the early Tudor prose of Thomas Paynell, canon of Martin Abbey, the translation has a character and charm difficult to communicate. In his preface he tells of his diffidence in attempting the translation of "that greate clerke of Almayne," being persuaded by the printer only because of the good which might come of it.

Among other works in the Lilly Library on the subject is a fine copy of John Hunter's A Treatise on The Venereal Disease (London, 1786), uncut, in modern half calf (No. 11—RC 201 .H9 1786). "Hunter inoculated himself with matter taken from a gonorrheal patient who, unknown to Hunter, also had syphilis. Hunter contracted the latter disease and maintained that gonorrhea and syphilis were caused by a single pathogen. Backed by the weight of Hunter's authority, this experiment retarded the development of knowledge regarding the two diseases"—Garrison-Morton. Phillippe Ricord's Traité Pratique des Maladies Vénériennes (Paris, 1838) records a repetition of Hunter's experiment which proved that the two diseases were different (No. 12—RC 201 .R55).

Paul Ehrlich and Sahachiro Hata, in Die experimentelle Chemotherapie der Spirillosen (Berlin, 1910), after many experiments in the action of synthetic drugs upon spirochetal diseases, announced the discovery of salvarsan ("606"), specific in the treatment of syphilis and yaws (No. 13—RC 112 .E33 E96 1910).


SIR THOMAS ELYOT. The Castel of Helthe. [London], 1539.

Bound with:

Regimen Sanitatis Salerni. This boke teachinge all people to governe them in helthe ... . [Text verses in Latin. Commentary by Arnaldus de Villa Nova, translated into English by Thomas Paynell.] [London, 1535.]

4to, old blind-tooled calf, rebacked.

Lilly Library call number: RA 775 .E5 vault

The earliest edition of The Castel of Helthe extent, no copy of a putative 1534 edition every having been located. The STC locates only the British Museum copy of the present edition.

Elyot was one of the most learned Englishmen of the time of Henry VIII. The book is a medical treatise on various ailments, and the author gives an account of the disorders from which he himself suffered. It remained popular until the end of the sixteenth century, but the fact that it was written in English by one who was not a doctor aroused much wrath on the part of the medical profession. Perhaps that is why it is not in Garrison or many other standard histories of medicine to this day.

The Regimen is present in the third printing of Paynell's translation and again the STC locates only the British Museum copy. Of the first edition only one copy is recorded; of the second, three. This famous medieval Latin poem of rhymed medical advice is the most interesting medical work associated with the School of Salerno. In this first English translation only the commentary was translated; the first published English version of the verses was by Sir John Harington, London, 1607.


ANDREAS VESALIUS. De Humani corporis fabrica Libri septem. Basel, [1543].

Folio, contemporary blind-stamped vellum, with brass clasps. Size 42 x 28 cm. With inserted double leaf in signature m; this double leaf and m 3 in on stubs.

Lilly Library call number: QM 25 .V5 1543

"By this epoch-making work Vesalius, the 'Father of Modern Anatomy,' prepared the way for the rebirth of physiology by Harvey. More important still, he undermined the widespread reverence for authority in science and prepared the way for independent observation in anatomy and clinical science. The publication of this work was the greatest event in medical history since the work of Galen. It ranks second only to Harvey's De motu cordis in importance"—Garrison-Morton, 375.

Fulton, a great admirer of Vesalius, reminds us, however, that "as a book, the Fabrica has probably been more admired and less read than any publication of equal significance in the history of science." He also comments that the edition must have been very large as he had records of 33 copies in America alone. Cushing records that he had "for several years kept measurements of the better known copies" and lists only three larger copies than the present, the largest being 43.4 x 29.2 cm.

The ANDREAS VESALIUS. De Humani corporis fabrica Libri septem. second edition (Basel, 1555) is also present (No. 16—QM 25 .V5 1555). According to Garrison, it is "much the better worth having ... the beautiful typography of Oporinus appears in enlarged font, the faulty pagination and index of 1543 are corrected and improved, the text is improved and more scientific." Fulton states, however, that the alterations were comparatively unimportant, though conceding that the second edition is a "still more sumptuous volume than that issued in 1543" and concluding that "the printer's termagant wife could scarcely have favored it."

The Lilly copy is in contemporary vellum, with brass clasps, and the binding is dated 1570. This beautiful copy measures 41.5 x 27.5 cm., .5 cm. each way under the 1543 copy; together, they make a gorgeous pair. Signature X is in three leaves as in Cushing, the double leaf inserted on a stub and X 3, with figures to be superimposed, intact.

The first edition published in England (No. 17—QM 25 .G32 1545) is entitled Compendiosa totius Anatomie delineatio aere exarata: per Thomam Geminum (London, 1545). It consists of 45 leaves of text and 40 plates and was completely unauthorized. Geminus had the woodcuts of Vesalius engraved on copper for this work, which is a splendid production and further distinguished as one of the first English books to contain copperplates. It is a much rarer book than either of the Basel editions and the Lilly copy is a fine one in contemporary blind-rolled binding, probably of English origin.


GIROLAMO FRACASTORO. De Sympathia et Antipathia Rerum Liber unus. De Contagione et Contagiosis Morbis et Curatione Libri III. Venice, 1546.

4to, full vellum.

Lilly Library call number: RC 111 .F8

This book represents a landmark in the development of our knowledge of infectious diseases, the author anticipating the germ theory of disease. "De contagione ... contains three contributions of the first importance. A clear statement of the problems of contagion and infection, a recognition of typhoid fever, and a remarkable pronouncement on the contagiousness of phthisis." The quotation is from Osler's Alabama Student.



El Ricettario dell' Arte, et Universita de Medici, et Spetiali della Citta di Firenze. Florence, 1550.

Folio, vellum, entirely uncut, with the blank leaf O 4 and the errata leaf S 2. The two final leaves carry a fine woodcut of the Virgin (S 3) and a cut of the Medici arms (S 4) repeated from the title page.

Lilly Library call number: RS 141.Y6 F6

The Florentine Pharmacopoeia, the first European work of its kind, was compiled by order of the Duke of Florence and exhibits a very high standard of pharmaceutical knowledge. It became official in 1573 for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and later for other Italian states.

Of the first edition of 1498, which was legal only for the city-state of Florence, two copies have survived (British Museum, Bibl. Naz. Rome).


Pharmacopoeia Londinensis: or the London Dispensatory ... By Nich. Culpeper Gent. Student in Physick and Astrology; living in Spittle-fields neer London. London, 1653.

Folio, contemporary calf; frontispiece portrait of the author.

Lilly Library call number: RS 151.3 .C85 1653

The first edition under this title of Culpeper's unauthorized translation of the College of Physicians' Pharmacopoeia of 1618. It was first printed in 1649 with the title "A Physicall Directory." The medical fraternity did not approve and, doubtless by their inspiration, it was referred to in a public print as "done (very filthily) into English [by one who] by two yeeres of drunken labour hath Gallimawfred the apothecaries book into nonsense ... And (to supply his drunkenness and leachery with a thirty shilling reward) endeavoured to bring into obloquy the famous societies of apothecaries and chyrurgeons" —DNB. The work was enormously successful, five editions appearing before 1698; it was reissued as late as 1809.

The Lilly Library also has the first London Pharmacopoeia done on purely scientific principles (No. 21—RS 141.3 .R88 1746), compiled for the Royal College of Physicians by William Heberden (London, 1746). All its predecessors, according to Garrison, "were disfigured by the retention of the usual vile and unsavoury ingredients, which were not thrown out until William Heberden made an onslaught on these superstitions."


Pharmacopoe[ia] simpliciorum et efficaciorum ... . [Compiled by William Brown.] Philadelphia, 1778. Evans 15750.

16mo, disbound. Faulty impression affects the title, as above.

Lilly Library call number: RS 141.2 .B8 vault

The first pharmacopoeia to be published in America, famous as the "Lititz Pharmacopoeia," the name deriving from the town from which it was distributed, a communistic village founded by Moravians in 1756 in what is now Lancaster County, Pa. It is printed entirely in Latin and runs to only 32 pages. It was compiled for the use of the Continental Army by the Physician General of the Middle Department and, according to the title page, was adapted to the needs and resources of the military service during the darkest days of the Revolution. Seven copies are recorded, four in Philadelphia libraries.

Other American pharmaceutical works in the Lilly Library include The Pharmacopoeia of the Massachusetts Medical Society (Boston, 1808, in original boards with paper label, RS 141.2 .M3) , and The Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America (Boston, 1820, RS 141.2 .P5 1820), the first state and national issues respectively (Nos. 23 and 24). Jacob Bigelow played an important part in preparing the latter and published a sequel to it (No. 25—RS 153 .B5), A Treatise on the Materia Medica (Boston, 1822) . He departed from continental usage by insisting upon the utmost simplicity in nomenclature. The original U.S. Pharmacopoeia was founded in 1820 at a privately organized convention in the Capitol at Washington, D.C. It is interesting to note that it is still prepared by physicians, pharmacists, and related specialists as a privately organized service, under government authorization.

A related work of special Indiana interest is Botany in Pharmacy (binding title), compiled by John S. Wright of the Eli Lilly Company and published at Indianapolis in 1893 (No. 26—QK 99 .W9). The Lilly copy of this small oblong 8vo volume is in the original printed wrappers, stabbed and corded, with the original envelope. According to Mr. Wright, Bruce Rogers designed the hand-lettered title, an initial, the scrolls for the illustrations, and the tailpiece. This was the first book decorated by Rogers, a Hoosier by birth, and was done while working at his first job for the Indiana Illustrating Company. Only three copies are recorded.



JACOB RUEFF. De Conceptu et Generatione Hominis. Zürich, 1554.

4to, vellum, with ties.

Lilly Library call number: RG 91 .R9 vault

The importance of this work by Rueff lies largely in its illustrations, which are of interest to the embryologist since they show contemporary ideas of mammalian embryology, and to obstetricians for the depictions of instruments. For laymen, the most pleasant plate is on the verso of the title page, showing the lying-in room with baby getting his first bath.


JACOB RUEFF. The Expert Midwife, or An Excellent and most necessary Treatise of the generation and birth of Man. London, 1637.

Small 4to, contemporary calf.

Lilly Library call number: RG 93 .R9 vault

This first English edition of Rueff's work is very rare, the STC locating only the British Museum copy and Bishop one other in the College of Physicians, Philadelphia. In fact, however, at least two other copies survive: one in the Hunterian Library at Edinburgh, and the present copy, which is a Hunterian duplicate.

Other important works on these subjects in the Lilly collection include William Harvey's Exercitationes de Generatione Animalium (London, 1651); a fine copy, with the portrait (No. 29—QL 955 .H34 vault). The chapter on labor ("De partu") in this book is the first original work on the subject by an Englishman. Walter Needham's Disquisitio Anatomica De Formato Foetu (London, 1667), dedicated to Robert Boyle, records chemical experiments on developing mammalian embryos, and contains instructions for their dissection (No. 30—QL 955 .N4). Wing records only one other copy in America (Chicago). François Mauriceau's Des Maladies des Femmes Grosses et accouchées (Paris, 1668), with the author's portrait on the engraved title page, is illustrated with exquisite copperplates (No. 31—RG 93 .M45). He introduced the practice of delivering his patients in bed instead of in the obstetrical chair, and in this book first refers to many problems of pregnancy and labor. He also gives an account of his adventure with the celebrated Hugh Chamberlen, of the Huguenot clan which succeeded in keeping their invention of an obstetric forceps a family secret for nearly two hundred years. Another seventeenth-century work of major importance is Regner de Graaf's De Mulierum Organis generationi inservientibus Tractatus Novus (Leyden, 1672), illustrated with 27 plates engraved by H. Bary (No. 32—QM 421 .G7). "De Graaf demonstrated ovulation anatomically, pathologically, and experimentally. In the above work he included the first account of the structures afterwards named [by Haller] 'Graafian follicles' "—Garrison.

William Smellie's A Sett of Anatomical Tables, with ... an Abridgment of the Practice of Midwifery (London, 1754) is a famous atlas, folio, with 39 magnificent life-size plates with explanatory text (No. 33—RG 93 .S56). It is a very rare book; the British Museum has no copy and a facsimile edition had to be made from the second edition. Smellie was the teacher of William Hunter, whose Anatomia Uteri Humani Gravidi tabulis illustrata, a folio containing 34 plates, is one of the finest such atlases ever produced (No. 34—RG 520 .H9). "Anatomically correct and artistically perfect," it was printed at the famous Baskerville Press (Birmingham, 1774). The letter press is in both Latin and English. Franz Karl Naegele's Das Weibliche Becken (Carlsruhe, 1825), 4to, with three lithographic plates, is the most important work of this Swiss scientist (No. 35—RG 519 .N32). He later described the obliquely contracted female pelvis.

The Lilly collection also contains the original publication (New England Quarterly Journal of Medicine and Surgery, Boston, 1 April 1843) of Oliver Wendell Holmes' The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever (No. 36—RG 811 .H6) , which roused a storm of criticism among American obstetricians. In 1855 he reprinted it with 24 additional pages and a revised title. He was able to write in The Professor at the Breakfast-Table in 1860: "The sneers of those whose position I had assailed ... I ... have at last demolished, so that nothing but the ghosts of dead women stir among its ruins." The articulate Holmes did not, however, discover the cause of the matter; the inarticulate Semmelweis did and was persecuted and died insane for his pains. It is one of medicine's ironies that these two men, living at the same time, did not know of each other's work. What a collaboration that would have been! For, as it has been remarked, "If Semmelweis could have written like Oliver Wendell Holmes, he would have conquered Europe in twelve months."


IGNAZ PHILIPP SEMMELWEIS. Die Aetiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbettfiebers. Pest, Wien & Leipzig, 1861.

8vo, contemporary boards.

Lilly Library call number: RG 811 .S36 vault

An epoch-making book by "one of medicine's martyrs, and one of its far-shining names." He was the man of whom the renowned Lister was to say, "To this great son of Hungary medicine owes most. Without Semmelweis I would be nothing."

Concerned with the tragic prevalence of puerperal fever in his Vienna hospital—four out of every ten women who entered the lying-in ward died of it—he eventually diagnosed it as a septicoemia caused by vaginal examinations made with unclean hands. He recommended "brushing-up" with chloride of lime which is the basis of aseptic—incorrectly often called antiseptic—practice.

He was fiercely opposed by his reactionary colleagues who were blinded by jealousy and vanity. At the height of the controversy he struck back with three pamphlets, among the rarest items in nineteenth-century medicine; the Lilly Library has two of them. Forced to an asylum in July, 1865, he brought with him a dissection wound on the right hand and died in August, a victim of the very disease he had done so much to conquer. His tragedy is the basis of Morton Thompson's The Cry and the Covenant, in the compiler's opinion the finest medical novel ever written.


J. MARION SIMS. Clinical Notes on Uterine Surgery with special reference to the Management of the Sterile Condition. New York, 1866.

First American edition, 8vo, cloth. English publication was in London, the same year.

Lilly Library call number: RG 104 .S6

Sims, born in South Carolina, became surgeon in the newly founded Women's Hospital, New York, 1855. When war broke out, his strong southern sympathies led him to go abroad. As he relates in the Preface, "In 1862 I voluntarily left my own country, on account of its political troubles. [This work] is simply a voice from the Women's Hospital, which, in all probability, would never have been heard if I had remained at home."

The book was a potent factor in the formation of the nascent specialty of gynecology. After the war Sims returned to America to resume a brilliant career and in 1876 was president of the American Medical Society.


GABRIELE FALLOPPIO. Observationes Anatomicae. Venice, 1561.

12mo, old vellum, with the leaf of errata, and the colophon leaf at the end.

Lilly Library call number: QM 421 .F2

This is the principal publication of Falloppio, a pupil of Vesalius (and by many contemporaries considered a more worthy successor) and one of the most distinguished anatomists of his time. "Falloppio is best remembered for his account of the tubes named after him. He also left excellent descriptions of the ovaries ... and round ligaments. He gave to the vagina and the placenta their present scientific names, and definitely proved the existence of the seminal vesicles"—Garrison-Morton.

HERNIA Nos. 40, 41


PIERRE FRANCO. Traité des Hernies ... . Lyon, 1561.

8vo, contemporary limp vellum; from the library of the Jesuit College at Paris. 25 full-page woodcuts of skeletons and surgical instruments.

Lilly Library call number: RD 621 .F8 vault

"The great Provencal surgeon, Pierre Franco, a Huguenot driven by the Waldensian massacres into Switzerland, did even more than Paré to put the operations for hernia, stone, and cataract upon a definite and dignified basis, and was the first to perform supra-pubic cystotomy"—Garrison. The plates reproduce skeletons from Vesalius' Tabulae of 1538, in reduced size.

The earliest important study of hernia in English is:


PERCIVAL POTT. A Treatise on Ruptures. London, 1756.

8vo, later wrappers.

Lilly Library call number: RD 621 .P6

Through a fall in the street, Pott sustained the particular fracture of the fibula to which his name has been given. He took up authorship while confined to his bed, the first fruits being the above treatise on hernia. Referring to it as "his classical book," Garrison-Morton continues: "He refuted many of the old theories concerning its (hernia's) causation and methods of treatment based on these theories. The book includes the first description of congenital hernia."


NICOLAS DE MONARDES. Dos Libros, el Una que trata de todas las Cosas ... que sirven al uso de la medicina ... . Seville, 1569.

12mo, original calf, richly gilded, gilt edges, probably bound for presentation.

Lilly Library call number: RS 169 .M5 vault

Long considered the first edition of this work, at least one earlier copy is known, in the John Carter Brown collection.

The first comprehensive work relating to the medicinal values of the plants of the New World. "One of the sad experiences of modern man has been his disappointment as it was slowly revealed that American plant remedies were not, after all, to cure the world of its physical ills. Quinine, ipecac, and a few others of less importance remain to enrich the curative resources of medical science, but gone is the magical bezar stone, antidote to poisons, and gone too, that marvelous 'balsam of the Indies' which healed the wounds of soldiers. But it was a hopeful world of medical men while the belief in the new pharmacopoeia lasted, and Monardes is a sober work of excellent intuition"—Lawrence C. Wroth.

The first English translation was by John Frampton in 1577 with the exciting title Ioyfull Newes Out of the New-found Worlde. Wherein are declared, the rare and singuler vertues of divers Herbs, Trees, Plantes, Oyles & Stones (No. 43—RS 169 .M66 1596 vault). The Lilly copy is the third edition (London, 1596).

The Ioyfull Newes first introduced to English readers popular designations for the famous plant from America: nicotiane and tabaco. "Its manifold uses attracted the widest attention among English physicians. They became busily engaged in prescribing tobacco and in formulating new principles for its application ... extravagant claims were accepted with simple faith"—Arents. It took four centuries to change some of their minds.


AMBROISE PARÉ. Cinq Livres de Chirurgie. Paris, 1572.

12mo, original calf, richly gilded, gilt edges, probably bound for presentation. Illustrated.

Lilly Library call number: R 128.6 .P23 1572

The text is divided into five parts—on bandages, on fractures, on dislocations (with a defense of his treatment of gunshot wounds), on bites (including those of rabid dogs and venomous serpents), and on the gout and arthritis.

Paré at first a rustic barber's apprentice and later a dresser at the Hôtel Dieu, became an army surgeon in 1537 and later the greatest surgeon of his time and the idol of the troops with whom he served. One of the best known of medical stories is his account of running out of boiling oil for the treatment of gunshot wounds one night; his success with patients treated otherwise on this occasion taught him to abandon the boiling oil and to adopt and advocate other methods against the protests of his fellow practitioners. Garrison places him "In personality ... between his surgical peers—the rude, outspoken Hunter and the refined, self-possessed Lister—as a man equally at home in the rigors of camp life or the slippery footing of courts." In case histories he often repeats the phrase inscribed on his statue, "Je le pansay, Dieu le guarit"—"I bandaged him, God cured him."


CONRAD GESNER. The newe Iewell of Health, wherein is contayned the most excellent Secretes of Phisicke and Philosophie ... . London, 1576.

Small 8vo, old calf.

Lilly Library call number: RM 81 .G4 vault

The first English translation of Gesner's Euonymus, by George Baker. The text, on the chemical preparation of medicines or "distillation," is enlivened with many pictures of apparatus.

In his preface Baker defends his translation of a learned book into the vernacular. Nevertheless, according to DNB, "in this and his other treatises on pharmacy, the processes were not always fully described, for Baker was, after all, against telling too much. 'As for the names of the simples, I thought it good to write them in the Latin as they were, for by the searching of their English names the reader shall very much profit; and another cause is that I would not have eve y ignorant asse to be made a chirurgian by my book, for they would do more harm with it than good.' "



GEORG BARTISCH. Ophthalmodouleia. Das ist, Augendienst. Dresden, 1583.

Small folio, stamped pigskin over wooden boards, with initials "A. F." and date "1597" in blind. Woodcuts of the arms of Saxony and of Dresden, portrait of Bartisch, and many illustrations of pathological conditions of the eye, treatments, and instruments, two with hinged overlays.

Lilly Library call number: RE 46 .B2 vault

Bartisch was the founder of modern ophthalmology and the illustrations form a comprehensive picture book of Renaissance eye surgery. The text is clean, unusual in this title which, is ordinarily badly browned. It was formerly in the possession of a Swiss family of pharmacists; bound in at the back are 48 leaves of manuscript notes in varying hands, mostly on prescriptions.

The Lilly Library also possesses Jacques Guillemeau's Traité des Maladies de l'Oeil (Paris, 1585), which Garrison considers the best of the Renaissance books on ophthalmology (No. 47—RE 46 .G9 vault). Dedicated to his master, Ambroise Paré," this original edition is as uncommon as those of Paré, all of which are among the "black tulips" of medicine.

The first important work on the subject by an Englishman (No. 48—QM 511 .B8) is William Briggs' Ophthalmographia, Sive Oculi ejusdem partium descriptio Anatomica (Cambridge, 1676). Our copy is in contemporary calf, rebacked, with two folding plates, and Wing records only one other copy in America, in the John Crerar Library.

Among later works on the subject are Charles Saint-Yves' Nouveau Traité des Maladies des Yeux (Paris, 1722), which records the removal of a cataract "en masse" from a living subject (No. 49—RE 46 .S2), and Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz's Beschreibung eines Augen-Spiegels (Berlin, 1851), describing the invention of the ophthalmoscope, one of the greatest events in the history of ophthalmology (No. 50—RE 78 .H479 B5).


JOHANN PURKINJE. Neue Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Sehens in subjectiver Hinsicht. In: Magazin für die Gesammte Heilkunde, Vol. 20; edited by J. N. Rust. Berlin, 1825.

8vo, old boards. With 4 folding plates, displaying 50 optical figures, mostly colored. In three parts: pp. 1-83, 199-276, 391-423.

Lilly Library call number: QP 475 .P9

This is the extensive continuation of Purkinje's Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Sehens, his dissertation of 1823. Garrison credits Purkinje with being a pioneer in his descriptions of the subjective visual figures, especially those obtained by Galvanic stimulation, and in the study of the recurrent images (here illustrated in extenso and in colors) and of the dependence of brightness of color upon intensity of light.


FRANS CORNELIS DONDERS. Astigmatismus und Cylindrische Glaeser. Berlin, 1862.

8vo, marbled boards. Figures in text.

Lilly Library call number: RE 925 .D6

This celebrated treatise by the great Dutch ophthalmologist deals with "the improvement of disorders of vision by spectacles." It is dedicated to Albrecht von Graefe, the German ophthalmologist, the author's nephew.


ALBRECHT VON GRAEFE. Symptomenlehre der Augenmuskellähmungen. Berlin, 1867.

8vo, contemporary half leather.

Lilly Library call number: RE 760 .G8

"Albrecht von Graefe [was] the creator of the modern surgery of the eye, and indeed the greatest of all eye surgeons ... Graefe's clinic became famous all over the world, and was followed not so much by students as by practising physicians who had come to Berlin to learn about the eye from its greatest master. His pupils included nearly all the greater ophthalmologists of the nineteenth century"—Garrison. Von Graefe compressed a major career into 23 short years between graduation and death. The above work on the muscles of the eye appeared just three years before his death, during the period of his greatest influence, while he was in the midst of his classic work on the treatment for cataract.


TIMOTHY BRIGHT. A Treatise of Melancholie. Containing the Causes thereof, & reasons of the strange effects it worketh in our minds and bodies; with the phisicke cure, and spirituall consolation for such as have thereto adioyned an afflicted conscience. London, 1586.

Small 8vo, old calf. With the terminal errata leaf.

Lilly Library call number: RC 618 .B7 vault

Two editions were published in 1586, the present by Vautrollier and another by John Windet. This edition is the earlier, the errata being corrected in the Windet edition and the text condensed. Two pages, with partially repeated text, occur in this edition which do not appear in the Windet or the later 1613 printings. Apparently in setting from manuscript, the compositor set an original draft on leaf O 8, and then a revised version on P 1, the revised version omitting all but 14 lines of the original. The present copy is in the first state; the British Museum copy of this edition (lacking pp. 33-48) has the errata corrected, while the present copy is completely uncorrected.

This pioneer work in psychological medicine is also of importance in the history of English literature. Scholars have located phrases reminiscent of this text, appropriately, in Hamlet, and other evidence has been offered to indicate that Shakespeare may have been acquainted with the book.

Bright took his medical degree at Cambridge, studied at Paris, and was physician at St. Bartholomew's, 1586-90. He argues in his preface the importance of that branch of medical practice which "correcteth the infirmities of the mind." Besides analyzing the causes and nature of melancholy, "I have," he says, "added mine advise of physicke helpe: what diet, what medicine, and what other remedie is meet for persons, oppressed with melancholic fears & that kind of heaviness of hart." He afterward abandoned the medical profession and took holy orders. He is remembered, also, as the inventor of modern shorthand.


GASPARO TAGLIACOZZI. De Curtorum Chirurgia per insitionem, Libri Duo. Venice: Bindonus, 1597.

Folio, eighteenth-century calf. The two parts are paged separately, as is the section of 22 engraved plates at the end (the Viva ... Delineatio).

Lilly Library call number: RD 118 .T2

The pioneer work in plastic surgery or rhinoplasty, this famous book not only recounts its principles for the first time but also illustrates its practice in a series of striking plates.

"For this innovation Tagliacozzi was roundly abused by both Paré and Fallopius, and satirized during the following century in Butler's Hudibras, while the ecclesiastics of his own time, we are told, were fain to regard such operations as meddling with the handiwork of God. His remains were exhumed from the convent, where they reposed, to be buried in unconsecrated ground. In 1788 the Paris Faculty interdicted face-repairing altogether. In this way plastic surgery fell into disrepute and disuse until the time of Dieffenbach [1822]"—Garrison.

The publication of the original edition was apparently shared between two Venetian houses. Our copy (like that in the Surgeon General's Library and the one cited by Garrison-Morton) has Bindonus' imprint. Osler's (21 plates only) has that of Meiettus.


GIULIO CASSERIO. De Vocis Auditusque Organis Historia. Anatomica ... Tractatibus Duobus Explicata. Ferrara, 1600.

Folio, old vellum. Engraved title, engraved portraits of Casserio and the Duke of Parma, and 34 anatomical copperplates, of which 22 are on the vocal organs and 12 are on the organs of hearing, in man and other animals. Choulant attributes the drawings and engravings to Joseph (or Josias) Maurer, quoting a passage from the text.

Lilly Library call number: QL 853 .C3 vault

"Giulio Casserio of Piacenza (1561 to 1616) was a pupil of Fabricius ... He greatly extended the knowledge of human anatomy. Particularly he refined the anatomy of the sense organs and of the organs of the laryngeal apparatus ... He first seeks to set forth a complete account of the organ in the human subject. Then he follows this organ through a long series of animal forms ... Casserius set a very high standard both of workmanship and accuracy. His figures are the model for the copperplate illustrator as those of Vesalius and Ruini are for the woodcut operator"—Singer, The Evolution of Anatomy.



Folio, quarter vellum. 7 full-page plates and 1 double plate.

Lilly Library call number: QM 5 .F12 A2 1625 vault

Fabricius, teacher of Harvey at Padua, made important observations on the valves of the veins. He failed to recognize their true function, considering this to be merely a delaying of the blood flow. However, his work influenced Harvey, who reproduced the extended arm from the great double plate in his De Motu Cordis twenty-five years later. The plates are magnificent, nothing on their scale having been seen since the days of Vesalius.

In addition to its significance in the history of anatomy, On the Valves of the Veins is a book of the greatest rarity. Issued unbound, copies are sometimes found without the title page, bound up with other works of Fabricius. Of the original 1603 publication, there is no copy in the British Museum, Osler, or Cushing catalogues. Copies in the Royal College of Surgeons, the Radcliffe Library (Oxford), and the New York Academy of Medicine are all bound up under the 1625 general title but with that of 1603 preserved, and there is a copy without any title page in the library of the Royal Society of Medicine.

The present copy, like that in the library of the Royal College of Surgeons, does not have the words "SUPERIORUM PERMISSV" at the end of text on page 22. Since this license does appear, in the same position, in four other treatises published by Fabricius in 1603 and 1604, it is a reasonable supposition that it was added to, not subtracted from, copies of the De Venarum Ostiolis, and therefore that copies without the license are earlier than those with it.


GASPARO ASELLI. De Lactibus Sive Lacteis Venis. Milan, 1627.

4to, quarter vellum; with copperplate portrait and 4 polychrome woodcuts.

Lilly Library call number: QM 197 .A8 vault

It is recorded that on 23 July 1622 Aselli discovered the chyliferous vessels, which had not been observed since the days of Erasistratus (fourth century B.C.). He died before he was able to publish this treatise and the project was carried through by two of his friends.

The four woodcuts open out to folio size, and all represent animal, not human, organs. They are printed in red and black, and Choulant states that "this very rare work contains therefore the earliest anatomic illustrations in colored printing."


ADRIAN SPIGELIUS AND GIULIO CASSERIO. Adriani Spigelii ... De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Decem. Venice: Deuchinus, 1627.

Bound with:

Iulii Casserii ... Tabulae Anatomicae LXXIIX ... Daniel Bucretius ... XX quae deerant supplevit et omium explicationes addidit. Venice: Deuchinus, 1627.

Folio, contemporary calf, rebacked. 97 anatomical plates in the second title listed, after designs by Fialetti, a pupil of Tintoretto.

Lilly Library call number: QM 21 .S6

First editions of both pieces, with both title pages; the Casserius in the first state, without the dedication by Bucretius to his native city of Breslau. Although the title page of the Spigelius promises 98 plates (for the discrepancy in numbers, see below), the work is unillustrated; the Casserius supplies the illustrations, with the tabular explanations of Bucretius.

Casserio died in 1616, owning 78 plates prepared for an anatomical work. His successor as professor of anatomy at Padua, Spigelius, died in 1625, leaving an unpublished anatomical manuscript and asking the German physician Daniel Rindfleisch (Bucretius) to arrange its publication. Bucretius got the 78 plates from Casserio's heirs, marred one (perhaps intentionally), and added 20 by the same artist, for a total of 97 plates. The publication of the two works, each supplementing the other, was accomplished simultaneously in 1627.

"A wonderful union of scientific accuracy with artistic perfection was attained in the Tabulae Anatomicae ... these 'eviscerated beauties,' as Dr. Holmes has styled them, are as attractive in appearance as their dissected parts were held to be instructive to the student"—Garrison. Spigelius was the last in the great line of Paduan anatomists started by Vesalius; after his death, Padua lost its European preeminence in the field.


WILLIAM HARVEY. Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus. Frankfurt, 1628.

4to, original limp vellum. With 2 plates displaying 4 figures, and leaf of errata.

Lilly Library call number: QP 101 .H3 vault

"The most important book in the history of medicine. Harvey proved experimentally that in animals the blood is impelled in a circle by the beat of the heart, passing from arteries to veins through pores (i.e., the capillaries, seen by Malpighi with the microscope in 1660). Garrison considers that the importance of Harvey's work lies not so much in the discovery of the circulation as to its quantitative or mathematical demonstration. Probably Harvey chose to have the book printed in Frankfurt because of the famous book fair held there and the consequent greater publicity his book would receive"—Garrison-Morton. That he was successful in this seems evidenced by the surprisingly large number of surviving copies, 46 in the last published account (1963). Curiously enough De Motu Cordis had to wait nearly three centuries before an edition was published in America (New York, 1907).

The Lilly collection also includes an English translation of the De Motu Cordis under the title of The Anatomical Exercises of Dr. William Harvey, published in London in 1653 (No. 61—QP 101 .H3 1653). In addition to the original text, it includes the Discourse of James de Back (with a defence of Harvey) and Harvey's Two Anatomical Exercitations Concerning The Circulation of the Blood, being two replies by Harvey to objections by the pedant Riolanus against his theories.

A controversy of long standing has existed as to the claims of Andrea Cesalpino to the discovery of the circulation of the blood. His partisans usually base their case on the somewhat ambiguous passages found in the Peripateticarum Quaestionum Libri Quinque (Venice, 1571), a copy of which is in the Lilly collection (No. 62—QM 178 .C4 vault). Actually, a much less equivocal passage is to be found in Cesalpino's posthumously published Praxis of 1606 where, after speaking of veins that "bring" and arteries that "carry away" the blood, he concludes "ut continuus quidam motus fieret ex venis in cor et ex corde in arteries" (so that a kind of continual motion is created from the veins to the heart and from the heart into the arteries).

This plain assertion of the "motus cordis" published 20 years before Harvey's printing does give Cesalpino a clear claim to priority in the general conception of the circulation, but the anatomical and physiological conditions and implications of the discovery still remained obscure until the appearance of Harvey's treatise.


MARCO AURELIO SEVERINO. De Recondita Abscessuum Natura Libri VII. Naples, 1632.

8vo, old vellum. Engraved title page and 13 copperplate illustrations. Complete with the 4 leaves of errata and imprimatur. Several of the ten treatises included in the volume have separate pagination.

Lilly Library call number: RD 57 .S4

"The first textbook of surgical pathology. It treats of all kinds of swellings under the term 'abscess,' and describes neoplasms of the genital organs and sarcomata of bones. Tumours of the breast are classified into four groups, the section devoted to them being one of the most important in the book. This was also the first book to include illustrations of lesions with the text"—Garrison-Morton.


JACOBUS BONTIUS. De Medicina Indorum Lib. IV. Leyden, 1642.

24mo, vellum. Engraved title page by C. van Dalen.

Lilly Library call number: RA 934 .D9 B6

As Holland became a great colonial power in the East Indies, Dutch physicians brought back to Europe knowledge of diseases hitherto unheard of. Bondt entered the service of the East Indies Company and went to Batavia, Java. He realized on his arrival his inadequate knowledge of tropical diseases and immediately began to record his observations. A scant four years later he was dead, but this work, published by his brother seven years later, records the first descriptions of beri-beri and cholera in European medical literature.


JEAN BAPTISTE VAN HELMONT. Ortus Medicinae. Amsterdam, 1648.

4to, vellum. Engraved portrait.

Lilly Library call number: R 128.7 .H7

Van Helmont was a complex personality, part scientist, part mystic. He believed in sympathic healing and in Paracelsus' weapon salve, which healed by anointing the weapon instead of the wound, and stated, "I have seen the weapon salve cure not only men but horses." His tract De Magnetica Vulnerum Curatione (1621) brought him into the disfavor of the Catholic Church, whose authorities thought that it tended to derogate some of the miracles.

He died in 1644 and four years later his son, whose tastes were even more mystical, published this work in Amsterdam, in a Protestant country where the Inquisition could not interfere. In it Helmont established himself as one of the founders of biochemistry. He was the first to realize the physiological importance of ferments and gases and claimed to have invented the word "gas." He also made the first recorded observations on the specific gravity of urine. A sufferer from asthma, he described it vividly, correctly placing the seat of the trouble as the bronchi, and describing attacks produced by inhaling house dust and eating fish.


NATHANIEL HIGHMORE. Corporis Humani Disquisitio Anatomica: in qua Sanguinis Circulationem ... prosequutus est. The Hague, 1651.

4to, contemporary sheep. Engraved allegorical frontispiece, 20 engravings in the text. The book is dedicated to William Harvey.

Lilly Library call number: QM 21 .H6

"The book is never read now, but one passage in it has made the author's name familiar to all students of anatomy. He describes accurately ... the cavity in the superior maxillary bone, to which his attention was drawn by a lady patient, in whom an abscess of this cavity, ever since known as the antrum of Highmore, was drained by the extraction of the left canine tooth"—DNB.


THOMAS BARTHOLIN. Vasa Lymphatica, Nuper Hafniae in Animantibus inventa, Et Hepatis Exsequiae. Paris, 1653.

12mo, contemporary French mottled calf. Bound with other first and early editions of Bartholin and his opponent Riolanus.

Lilly Library call number: QM 197 .B2

"Bartholin disputed the claim of Rudbeck as to priority in the discovery of the intestinal lymphatics. Although anticipated in this by Rudbeck, there is no doubt that Bartholin was the first to appreciate the significance of the lymphatic system as a whole"—Garrison-Morton. Bartholin was physician to the King of Denmark and also a University Librarian, a rare combination!



ROBERT PEMELL. De Morbis Puerorum, or, a Treatise of The Diseases of Children: With Their Causes, Signs, Prognosticks, and Cures, for the benefit of such as do not understand the Latine Tongue. London, 1653.

4to, contemporary calf. Bound with two other tracts.

Lilly Library call number: RS 151.3 .P4 vault

The first work completely on pediatrics in English, Phaer's "boke of children," more than a hundred years earlier (London, 1545), being appended to his translation of the Regimen. Pemell, a country doctor, practising in what was then the remote Weald of Kent, writes from practical experience. The work contains the first reference to gum-lancing in teething, forthright advice on the diet of the nurse, etc. Wing locates only one copy in America, at the New York Academy of Medicine.

Other important works in pediatrics in the Lilly collection include Walter Harris's De Morbis Acutis Infantum (London, 1689). The author was physician to William and Mary and his book served generations as a standard work (No. 69—RJ 44 .H3). William Cadogan's An Essay upon Nursing, and the Management of Children, From their Birth to Three Years of Age (London, 1748) laid down rules on the nursing, feeding, and clothing of infants and filled a great need at a time when their welfare was much neglected through ignorance (No. 70—RJ 101 .C3 1748). Nicolas Andry's L'Orthopédie, ou L'Art de Prévenir et de Corriger dans les Enfans les Difformités du Corps (Paris, 1741) was issued in two volumes with a frontispiece and 13 engraved plates (No. 71—RD 732 .A6); the first book on orthopedics, a term introduced by the author himself, and the first book on the diseases of children to deal with chlorosis.

Michael Underwood laid the foundation of modern pediatrics with his A Treatise on the Diseases of Children, With Directions For the Management of Infants From the Birth, published in 1784 (No. 72—RJ 44 .U5 1784). It remained the most important book on the subject for over half a century, passing through many editions. It was Underwood, incidentally, who in 1798 first defined polio as a distinct disease.

The Grolier Club's One Hundred Influential American Books Printed before 1900 included Luther Emmett Holt's The Care and Feeding of Children, published at New York in 1894 (No. 73—RJ 61 .H7 1894); and stated that it "achieved a popular success unrivalled by any previous medical publication; and established scientific common sense in the American nursery. It would be reasonable to assume that half the visitors to this exhibition passed a healthier infancy because of Dr. Holt's teaching."


FRANCIS GLISSON. Anatomia Hepatis. London, 1654.

8vo, old vellum, colored edges. Two folding plates.

Lilly Library call number: QP 185 .G6

Francis Glisson was Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge for over forty years, and one of the founders of the Royal Society. He was also president of the Royal College of Physicians for two years.

Garrison lists four major contributions to knowledge made by him during his career as an anatomist, physiologist, and pathologist. Of these four, the one with which his name has been connected is the first accurate description of the capsule of the liver investing the portal vein (Glisson's capsule) and its blood supply. This description appears for the first time in this volume.


RENÉ DESCARTES. De Homine Figuris et Latinitate Donatus a Florentio Schuyl. Leyden, 1662.

Small 4to, old vellum. Copiously illustrated with anatomical engravings and woodcuts. The engraving of the heart has 2 hinged overlays.

Lilly Library call number: QP 29 .D43 vault

This Latin edition, translated by Schuyl, preceded the first French edition by two years. The De Homine is considered the first European textbook on physiology.

"Descartes considered the human body a material machine, directed by a rational soul located in the pineal body. This book was the first attempt to cover the whole field of 'animal physiology.' The work is really a physiological appendix to his Discourse on Method, 1637"—Garrison-Morton.


NICOLAUS STENO. Observationes Anatomicae, quibus Varia Oris, Oculorum, & Narium Vasa describuntur. Leyden, 1662.

Small 12mo, old calf; plates. From the Wilhelm Maar collection, with his signature.

Lilly Library call number: QM 535 .S8 vault

"Niels Stensen, or Steno, of Copenhagen was, like Athanasius Kircher, a physician-priest, and also like him, a man of wonderful versatility. He was at once a great anatomist, physiologist, geologist, and theologian, and became Bishop of Titiopolis some time after his conversion from the Lutheran to the Catholic faith in 1667. In anatomy, his name is permanently associated with the excretory duct of the parotid gland (Steno's duct), which he discovered in the sheep in 1661"—Garrison.


NICOLAUS STENO. Elementorum Myologiae Specimen, seu Musculi descriptio Geometrica. Florence, 1667.

4to, quarter vellum, with 7 folding plates (3 woodcuts, 4 engravings).

Lilly Library call number: QP 321 .S8

An important work on the physiology of the muscles. Steno was the first to recognize that the muscles are the only active organs of animal motion. His "further studies on the physiology of the muscles (1667) treat the subject from a purely mechanical and mathematical standpoint, regarding the muscles as parallelepiped bundles of structural units ... [He] opposed the view entertained by Borelli that the increase in size of a muscle is due to the influx of hypothetic juices"—Garrison. In this book Steno amplified and expanded the theories of muscular action first adumbrated in his De Musculis of 1664.


FRANCESCO REDI. Osservazioni intorno Alle Vipere ... in una lettera all' illustrissimo Signor Lorenzo Magalotti ... . Florence, 1664.

4to, limp vellum. Title page in red and black. Complete with the terminal privilege and errata leaves.

Lilly Library call number: QL 666 .O6 R24 1664

"The first methodical work on snake-poison. Redi demonstrated for the first time that for the poison to produce its effects it must be injected under the skin"—Garrison-Morton.


THOMAS WILLIS. Cerebri Anatome, cui accessit Nervorum Descriptio et Usus. London, 1664.

Small 8vp, old calf; 15 folding plates of the brain and nervous system after Sir Christopher Wren. The imprint varying from the copy in Garrison-Morton, with Roycroft for Flesher, as in one of the Bib. Walleriana copies.

Lilly Library call number: RC 340 .W7 vault

"The most complete and accurate account of the nervous system which had hitherto appeared. In its preparation Willis was helped by Lower ... Willis' classification of the cerebral nerves held the field until the time of Soemmerring. The book includes ... the first description of the 'circle of Willis' and of the eleventh cranial nerve ('nerve of Willis'). Willis recognized the sympathetic system and accepted the brain as the organ of thought"—Garrison-Morton.

The Lilly Library also contains a posthumous translation of Willis' De Anima Brutorum, done into English as Two Discourses concerning The Soul of Brutes by Samuel Pordage (London, 1683), a minor poet and dramatist (No. 80—QP 354 .W6). The text is famous for its description of general paralysis and of the deaf woman who could hear only when a drum was beating (paracusis Willisii). The four plates include depictions of the anatomy of the lobster, oyster, earthworm, and other animals. Professor F. J. Cole says that the work makes "a solid contribution to the armamentarium of the comparative anatomist."


MARCHAMONT NEEDHAM (OR NEDHAM). Medela Medicinae. A plea For the Free Profession, and a Renovation of the Art of Physick, Out of the Noblest and most Authentick Writers. Shewing The Publick Advantage of its Liberty. The Disadvantage that comes to the Publick by any sort of Physicians, imposing upon the Studies and Practise of others, The Alteration of Diseases, from their old State and Condition ... . London, 1665.

8vo, contemporary calf. With bookplate of the Duke of Beaufort, dated 1705.

Lilly Library call number: R 128.7 .N4

The only medical work of the free-lance journalist Marchamont Needham, and the first publication in English on bacteriology, a vigorous plea for modern methods in medicine and an attack on the College of Physicians. "But the most exciting thing about the book is Chapter V. Kircher's Scrutinum Pestis had fallen into Needham's hands ... and he gives an account of Kircher's experiments with the microscope, with much real comprehension of what Kircher's discovery of 'vermicles' might mean"—Stubbs and Bligh.


MARCELLO MALPIGHI. De Viscerum Structura Exercitatio Anatomica. Bologna, 1666.

Small 4to, contemporary limp boards. With the Liechtenstein bookplate.

Lilly Library call number: RB 24 .M2 vault

This is an earlier edition than the one hitherto held to be the first (Bibliotheca Osleriana 990, Garrison-Morton 535, Frati's Bibliography of Malpighi 15), and appears to be unrecorded and undescribed. The only other copy known to us was in the collection of Dr. John F. Fulton.

This "preliminary" edition comprises title and 100 pp. of text; collation [ ]2, the first leaf blank, the second leaf title with verso blank; A-M4 N2. It contains the De Hepate, De Cerebri Cortice, and De Renibus. To these contents Malpighi subsequently (but before the end of the year, for both editions are dated 1666) added the De Polypo Cordis and the De Liene; the title page was accordingly reprinted to include the words Accedit Dissertatio de Polypo Cordis, and preliminary matter was added. Even this enlarged edition is a rare book.

Malpighi was considered by Garrison as "the greatest of the microscopists" and "the founder of histology." In this book, says Fulton (Physiology, p. 41), "he gives pioneer descriptions of the histological structure of the liver, cerebral cortex, kidneys (Malpighian corpuscle and capsule) and spleen."


HIERONYMUS BARBATUS (JEROME BARBATO). Dissertatio ... De Sanguine et Eius Sero. Frankfort-am-Main, 1667.

12mo, quarter calf, uncut. With the ex libris of C. J. Trew, M.D., famous physician and naturalist.

Lilly Library call number: QP 91 .B3

"Barbato made his reputation by this book, through which the serum of the blood was first known"—Bibliotheca Osleriana. The credit for the discovery was once claimed by adherents of Thomas Willis, but the researches of Anduoli assured Barbato of the palm. Barbato also wrote on arthritis and the embryo.


RICHARD LOWER. Tractatus de Corde. Item De Motu & Colore Sanguinis et Chyli in eum Transitu. London, 1669.

8vo, old vellum, uncut. 7 engraved folding plates bound in at the end.

Lilly Library call number: QM 178 .L6 vault

In the same year during which he received his medical degree, "Lower's classical experiment of passing blood direct from the artery of one dog into the vein of another was first performed at Oxford, [late] February 1665, in the presence of Boyle and others, and repeated in London before the Royal Society"—DNB. The account appears at p. 174 of the present work. Difficulty was experienced in finding a human subject willing to undergo transfusion, with the result that Denys anticipated Lower and first performed a transfusion on man at Paris 15 June 1667; but in November of the same year "an eccentric scholar named Arthur Coga submitted himself to the operation, carried out by Lower and King ... and professed himself greatly benefitted thereby." The principle of direct transfusion was bitterly opposed on theological and medical grounds and not adopted in medical practice until the present century.

Five copies have been located in England, four in America, and one in Paris. The present copy is in the first state, with leaf A 6 uncancelled.


JOHN MAYOW. Tractatus quinque Medico-Physici. Oxford, 1674.

8vo, contemporary unlettered calf, with a portrait and 6 plates. A beautiful impression of the portrait (which is attributed to Faithhorne), believed to be the only extant representation of Mayow.

Lilly Library call number: Q 155 .M5 vault

Sir William Maddock Bayliss, in his Principles of General Physiology, says, "Mayow rightly held that combustion went on in the muscles themselves ... this is a point of some importance, since it was held, even by Lavoisier, that the combustions take place in the lungs, so that Mayow was in advance of his successors."

Mayow also discovered the double articulation of the ribs with the spine, and "came near to discovering oxygen in his suggestion that the object of breathing was to abstract from the air a definite group of life-giving particles. He was the first to make the definite suggestion that it is only a special fraction of the air that is of use in respiration. His Tractatus, embodying as it does all his brilliant conclusions, is one of the best English medical classics"—Garrison-Morton.


ROBERT BOYLE. Memoirs for the Natural History of Humane Blood. London, 1684.

12mo, contemporary calf, rebacked.

Lilly Library call number: QP 91 .B7

"The most important of Boyle's medical writings ... it may be said to mark the beginning of physiological chemistry. He introduced the method of study which in recent years has been universally adopted"—Fulton.

The first issue, with uncancelled title dated 1684. Fulton's bibliography, in the second edition of 1961, reports the location of sufficient copies to support the hypothesis that the original title page was dated 1684, then cancelled and changed to read "1683/4" to establish the earlier date of issue according to English calendar usage of the period.


RAYMOND VIEUSSENS. Neurographia Universalis. Lyons, 1685.

Folio, contemporary calf. Portrait and 30 plates.

Lilly Library call number: QM 451 .V4 1685

As professor at Montpellier, the author made various studies on the anatomy of the nervous system, the heart, and the ear, all of importance, as well as less successful investigations of the blood. "The publication of the above work" [i.e., the Neurographia], according to Garrison-Morton, "threw new light on the subject of the configuration and structure of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. It is considered the best illustrated work on the subject to appear in the seventeenth century."


ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK. Arcana Naturae Detecta. Delft, 1695.

Small 4to, old half leather. Portrait, engraved title page, 26 finely engraved plates; some cuts in text.

Lilly Library call number: QH 271 .L46

Anton van Leeuwenhoek, one of the greatest microbiologists of all time, was born at Delft in 1632. After his early experiments with lenses, he began to use the microscope to study minute structures and forms of life. He discovered the red corpuscles in the blood and the minute structure of spermatozoa. He was able to observe protozoa and, later, bacteria. His researches disproved the contemporary widely held idea of spontaneous generation of many of the small organisms, and his discoveries opened up a new era of scientific investigation. Van Leeuwenhoek became a member of the Royal Society of London, and died in 1723 at the age of 91.

In the Arcana Naturae Detecta the author gives an account of his various researches in a series of 92 letters, addressed to members of the Royal Society.


GIORGIO BAGLIVI. De Fibra Motrice, Et Morbosa; Nec non de Experimentis, ac Morbis Salivae, Bilis & Sanguinis ... . Perugia, 1700.

Bound with:

ALESSANDRO PASCOLI. Il Corpo-Umano. Perugia, 1700.

4to, contemporary vellum. First edition of Baglivi's treatise, in this copy appended to Pascoli's work as being in the form of a letter to Pascoli, but with separate title, pagination, and signatures; it occupies the last 58 pp. of the book.

Lilly Library call number: QM 21 .P2

"The extreme of iatrophysical doctrine in Italy was reached by Malpighi's pupil, Giorgio Baglivi ... But directly he entered the sickroom, Baglivi dropped all these fine theories as the conclusions of immature laboratory logic. He was a highly successful physician, a true follower of Hippocrates at the bedside, and he died of hard work"—Garrison. Speaking of the diversions and status projects of other physicians, he noted that they did not "in the least contribute to the comfort of the sick."


BERNARDINO RAMAZZINI. De Morbis Artificum Diatriba. Modena, 1700.

8vo, vellum; with the half-title.

Lilly Library call number: RA 775 .C815 1729

"Ramazzini was the first to deal adequately with occupational diseases; his book was the first systematic treatise on the subject. It deals with pneumoconiosis and other diseases of miners, with lead poisoning in potters, with silicosis in stone-masons, diseases among metal workers, and even a chapter devoted to the 'diseases of learned men' "—Garrison-Morton.


FREDERIK RUYSCH. Thesaurus Anatomicus Primus [Decimus]. Amsterdam, 1701-16.

10 parts in one vol., 4to, old vellum. 41 engraved plates, some folding.

Lilly Library call number: QM 21 .R9

A book very rarely found complete (Cushing had only six parts) with all separate title pages to the parts. Professor of Anatomy at Leyden and Amsterdam, the author was notable for his method of injecting the vessels. The recipe for the material he used died with him.

Garrison comments that "for whimsical originality and exquisite delicacy of detail, the plates ... deserve a special mention. Skeletons posed in quaintest attitudes, with appropriate mottoes of the memento mori variety attached, surrounded by strange reptiles, stuffed monsters, dried plants, and deep-sea creatures, constituted the favorite decorative scheme of the old Dutch anatomist, whose mortuary humors have been sublimated in Leopardi's dialogue."


ANTONIO MARIA VALSALVA. De Aure Humana Tractatus, in quo integra ejusdem Auris Fabrica ... describitur. Bologna, 1704.

4to, contemporary vellum; 10 engraved plates, all bound in at back.

Lilly Library call number: QM 507 .V2

"Among the contributions of capital importance were the studies of the structure and physiology of the ear by Valsalva ... "—Garrison. "Valsalva ... is best remembered for his work upon the ear, in which he described and depicted its most minute muscles and nerves ... The book includes a description of 'Valsalva's dysphagia' "— Garrison-Morton.


J. M. LANCISIUS. De Subitaneis Mortibus Libri Duo. Rome, 1707.

4to, old vellum.

Lilly Library call number: RC 681 .L3

A curious and important work "On Sudden Death" by the greatest Italian clinician of his period, physician to several Popes. He was the first to describe valvular vegetations, and his book classifies cardiac diseases, besides noting cardiac hypertrophy and dilatation of the heart as causes of sudden death.


HERMANN BOERHAAVE. Institutiones Medicae In usus annuae Exercitationis Domesticos Digestae ... . Leyden, 1708.

8vo, contemporary boards, complete with the leaf of errata.

Lilly Library call number: R 128.7 .B67 1708

The Institutiones was in part a textbook of physiology and, like the author's Aphorisms, went through an incredible number of editions and translations, being rendered even into Arabic and Turkish. It earned for its author Haller's citation as "The Common Teacher of All Europe" (Communis Totius Europae Praeceptor).

Very aptly this copy of a handbook for the young medical student has a long inscription in Latin, dated 1715, stating that it was given by a young student of theology at the University of Upsala, who bought it when published, to a friend, a medical student who "added it to his yet poor library."


HERMANN BOERHAAVE. Opera Omnia Medica. Venice, 1735.

4to, contemporary calf.

Lilly Library call number: RM 84 .B58

The first collected edition of the work of the man whom Garrison calls "the leading physician of the age." The anecdotes about his fame reaching to China and his capacity for making monarchs wait only go to show that his influence was largely one of personality, personality which was kindly, dignified, and unassuming. "Boerhaave was perhaps the earliest of the great physicians who have loved music and frequently assembled performers at his house ... As a clinician ... he was the first to describe rupture of the esophagus ... and the aura-like pain which precedes hydrophobia ... It is said that he was the first to establish the site of pleurisy in the pleura, and to prove that smallpox is spread exclusively by contagion. He used the Fahrenheit thermometer in his clinic and the practice was kept up by his pupils, van Swieten and de Haen"—Garrison. It is ironic that his scientific reputation today rests largely upon the idea of "affinity" between substances which he introduced into chemistry, together with an improved method of making vinegar.


BARTHOLOMAEUS EUSTACHIUS. Tabulae Anatomicae. Rome, 1714.

Folio, half calf, fore and bottom edges uncut. 47 splendid anatomical copperplates engraved in 1552.

Lilly Library call number: QM 21 .E9

"A romantic history attaches to this fine collection of plates, drawn by Eustachius himself and completed in 1552. They remained unprinted and forgotten in the Vatican Library until discovered in the early eighteenth century, and were then presented by Pope Clement XI to his physician, the famous Lancisi. The latter published them in 1714 together with his own notes. The plates are more accurate than the work of Vesalius. C. Singer is of the opinion that had they appeared in 1552 Eustachius would have ranked with Vesalius as one of the founders of modern anatomy. He discovered the Eustachian tube, the thoracic duct, the adrenals and the abducens nerve, and gave the first accurate description of the uterus"—Garrison-Morton.


STEPHEN HALES. Vegetable Staticks: Or, An Account of some Statical Experiments on the Sap in Vegetables (and) Statical Essays: containing Haemastaticks. London, 1727-33.

2 vols., 8vo, contemporary panelled calf.

Lilly Library call number: QK 710 .H3

"In this (the second) work is recorded Hales' invention of the manometer, with which he was the first to measure blood pressure. His work is the greatest single contribution to our knowledge of the vascular system after Harvey, and led to the development of the blood pressure measuring instruments now in universal use"—Garrison-Morton.

DENTISTRY Nos. 98-100


PIERRE FAUCHARD. Le Chirurgien Dentiste, ou Traité des Dents. Paris, 1728.

2 vols., 12mo, original calf. Engraved frontispiece portrait of the author and leaf of errata in Volume I. Eight engraved plates in Volume I, thirty-two in Volume II.

Lilly Library call number: RK 50 .F3

Fauchard has been called the "Father of Dentistry." This comprehensive account of all that concerned dentistry in the eighteenth century is one of the greatest books in the history of the subject. Though Fauchard introduced many inventions, his chief merit is in having placed dentistry on a dignified basis and in having codified all that was best in its practice.


JOHN HUNTER. The Natural History of the Human Teeth. London, 1771.

Together with:

(Part II) A Practical Treatise on the Diseases of the Teeth. London, 1778.

4to, 2 vols. in one, old calf. 16 full-page copperplates in the first volume.

Lilly Library call number: RK 50 .H94

One of the major works of this original genius. Buckle's description is quoted by Osier: "He was one of those extremely rare characters who only appear at very long intervals, and who, when they do appear, remodel the fabric of knowledge. They revolutionize our methods of thought; they stir up the intellect to insurrection; they are the rebels and demagogues of science."

"Hunter was the first to study the teeth in a scientific manner, and the first to recommend complete removal of the pulp in filling them. He introduced the classes cuspids, bicuspids, molars and incisors, enlarged upon dental malocclusion, and devised appliances for correcting the condition"—Garrison. In the Practical Treatise he includes instructions regarding tooth transplantation.


RICHARD OWEN. Odontography; or, a Treatise on the Comparative Anatomy of the Teeth; ... London, 1840-45.

2 vols., tall 8vo, half morocco. Vol. I, text; Vol. II, 168 full-page illustrations.

Lilly Library call number: QL 858 .O9

Owen's comprehensive investigation of the morphology of mammalian teeth led him into palaeontology, of which he soon became one of the masters. Owen was from 1836-56 Hunterian professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. For a time he was an opponent of Darwinism.



JAN LADMIRAL. [Anatomische Voorwerpen door Jan Ladmiral.] Leyden and Amsterdam, 1736-41.

6 parts in one vol., 4to, contemporary boards, a printed paper label pasted inside the front cover. 6 colored plates, each keyed and signed.

Lilly Library call number: QM 191 .A6 vault

Returning to the continent after working under Le Blon in London, Ladmiral passed off Le Blon's system of color printing with copperplates as his own. He offered his services in the making of colored anatomical representations to the famous anatomist Albinus in Leyden. Six plates, with accompanying text, were produced:

  • Bernardi Siegfried Albini ... Dissertatio de Arteriis et Venis Intestinorum Hominis. 1736. 10 pp.
  • Bernardi Siegfried Albini ... Dissertatio Secunda. De Sede et Caussa [sic] Coloris Aethiopum et Caeterorum Hominum. 1737. 18 pp.
  • Icon Membranae Vasculosae ... Fred. Ruyschio. 1738. 4 pp.
  • Icon Durae Matris In concavâ Superficie visae ... Fred. Ruyschio. 1738. 4 pp.
  • Icon Durae Matris In convexâ Superficie visae ... Fred. Ruyschio. 1738. 4 pp.
  • Effigies Penis Humani. 1741. 6 pp.

The plate to Albinus' treatise on skin coloration represents in three figures the skin and nails of a Negro woman. The plates on the dura mater are in the second and preferred state, on green paper. The text of the last four pieces consists only of an explanation of the plate in Latin, French, and Dutch.

Mention has already been made of the plates to Aselli's De Lactibus ..., woodcuts printed in two colors; Le Blon is known to have completed one plate by his color process. This group by Ladmiral, however, is the first series of anatomical representations in full color. Complete sets are of great rarity.


J. F. GAUTIER D'AGOTY. Anatomie de la Tête, en Tableaux Imprimés, qui représentent au naturel le Cerveau sous différentes coupes ... d'après les parties dissequées et preparées par L. Duverney ... en Huit Grandes Planches, Dessinées, Peintes, Gravées & Imprimées en Couleur & Grandeur naturelle. Paris, 1748.

Large folio, boards, calf back.

Lilly Library call number: NC 760 .G2

Like Ladmiral, Gautier d'Agoty worked with Le Blon, and also claimed the color printing process as his own. He added a fourth plate—black—to the three colors used by Le Blon. The plates in the present atlas are superbly executed, and in fine and vivid impression.


A.E. GAUTIER D'AGOTY. Cours Complet d'Anatomie, peint et gravé en couleurs naturelles ... et expliqué par M. Jadelot. Nancy, 1773.

Atlas folio, half calf.

Lilly Library call number: NC 760 .G3

Complete; only this first part, comprising the "Myologie" on 15 plates, was ever issued. The project, planned by Gautier d'Agoty's son, was never carried through.

The myological plates are preceded by the two "Adam and Eve" plates with which most anatomical atlases traditionally begin. Gautier d'Agoty's "Eve" is a particularly attractive, very eighteenth-century lady, with a rococo coiffure. These two plates, remarkable specimens of French color printing, were often removed and framed. In most extant copies of this work, rare in any condition, they are wanting.


ROBERT WHYTT. An Essay on the Vital and other Involuntary Motions of Animals. Edinburgh, 1751.

8vo, contemporary calf, rebacked.

Lilly Library call number: QP 321 .W5

"Whytt, famous Edinburgh neurophysiologist, was the first to prove that the response of the pupils to light is a reflex action ('Whytt's reflex'). He described this reflex at length and mentioned that its afferent pathways lie in the optic nerve and the efferent pathways in the third pair"—Garrison-Morton.

In this important book, Whytt "demonstrated for the first time that the integrity of the spinal cord as a whole is not necessary for reflex action and that only a small fragment of it will suffice for this purpose. He also discovered that destruction of one of the anterior corpora quadrigemina will abolish reflex contraction of the pupils to light and was one of the first to notice the phenomena of inhibition and of spinal shock"— Garrison.


JAMES LIND. A Treatise of the Scurvy. Edinburgh, 1753.

8vo, quarter calf. From the Library of the Newcastle Infirmary.

Lilly Library call number: RC 663 .L74 1753

"Lind, founder of naval hygiene in England, wrote a classic treatise on scurvy, in which he described many important experiments he had made on the disease. He urged the issue of lemon juice in the navy, and even suggested preserved orange and lemon juice; it was due to him that scurvy was eventually eradicated from the British navy"— Garrison-Morton.

"Eventually," however, proved a long time. "Lind died 41 years after this publication without seeing any of his suggestions officially adopted by the British navy. The year of his death, a small squadron sailing for the East Indies was given an adequate supply of lemon juice and arrived at Madras 23 weeks later without a single case of scurvy on board. Two years thereafter lemon juice was added to the rations of the sailors, and scurvy disappeared from the British navy"—Ralph Major.


GIOVANNI BATTISTA MORGAGNI. De Sedibus, et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis. Venice, 1761.

2 vols., large folio, boards, uncut.

Lilly Library call number: RB 24 .M7 vault

"By this great work, one of the most important in the history of medicine, Morgagni was the true founder of modern pathological anatomy. The work was completed in Morgagni's 79th year and consists of a series of 70 letters reporting about 700 cases and necropsies. As best he could, he correlated the clinical record with the post-mortem finding. Morgagni gave the first descriptions of several pathological conditions. He was Professor of Anatomy at Padua"—Garrison-Morton.


DOMENICO COTUGNO. De Ischiade Nervosa Commentarius. Naples, 1768.

8vo. contemporary vellum.

Lilly Library call number: QP 375 .C7

This work contains the description of nervous sciatica ("Cotugno's disease") and the first detailed description of the cerebro-spinal fluid with an elaboration of its pathways. This had previously been briefly mentioned by Valsalva in 1692.


FRANZ ANTON MESMER. Mémoire sur la Découverte du Magnétisme Animal. Geneva and Paris, 1779.

12mo, contemporary calf.

Lilly Library call number: BF 1132 .M579 vault

In 1779 Mesmer arrived in Paris preceded by a reputation which classed him with Cagliostro, James Graham (of "celestial bed" fame), and similar charlatans. He was introduced by Gluck to Le Ray, President of the Academy of Science, who declined to present Mesmer's theories to the Academy without a statement of their basic principles. Mesmer is said to have written the above brochure for this express purpose. With its 27 "propositions," vague and unconvincing as they are, it represents the first full statement of Mesmer's theory of "animal magnetism," which, with all its errors and crudities, is nevertheless important in the history of psychotherapy.


WILLIAM WITHERING. An Account of the Foxglove, and Some of its Medical Uses. Birmingham, 1785.

2 copies, 8vo; one copy contemporary marbled boards, calf back, the other in original boards, uncut. Both copies complete with the preliminary signed blank, the half-title, the folding plate, and the leaf of explanation of the plate.

Lilly Library call number: RM 666 .D5 W6 vault

The folding plate of the foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) is sometimes found colored (not always contemporaneously), sometimes plain. In the copy in original boards it is colored. The other copy bears an autograph presentation inscription from the author to John Freer, the Birmingham surgeon, who was a colleague of Withering's at the hospital there; Freer's handsome bookplate is on the front endpaper. In this copy the plate is uncolored, evidence that the author's own copies had it in black and white.


WILLIAM CRUIKSHANK. The Anatomy of the Absorbing Vessels of the Human Body. London, 1786.

4to, original boards, uncut; with paper label.

Lilly Library call number: QM 197 .C8

Cruikshank, starting as an assistant to William Hunter, became his partner in the Great Windmill Street school, and after Hunter's death took in Matthew Baillie as his partner in the same enterprise. The Absorbing Vessels embodies the results of his labors with Hunter and laid the foundation of modern knowledge concerning the lymphatics.

Cruikshank's charity won him the esteem of his friend and patient, Dr. Samuel Johnson, "whom he treated in his last illness and who described him, in the Scottish phrase, as 'a sweet-blooded man' "—Garrison.


JOHN HUNTER. Observations on Certain Parts of the Animal Oeconomy. London, 1786.

4to, half calf. 17 plates.

Lilly Library call number: QL 803 .H9

This book was selected, as the most important of Hunter's works, for inclusion in the great Festival of Britain book exhibition of 1951. It contains 14 monographs, including 9 formerly printed in the Philosophical Transactions. They deal mostly with comparative anatomy and the mechanism of digestion, in which Hunter was particularly interested.

"With the advent of John Hunter (1728-93), surgery ceased to be regarded as a mere technical mode of treatment, and began to take its place as a branch of scientific medicine, firmly grounded in physiology and pathology ... His permanent position in science is based upon the fact that he was the founder of experimental and surgical pathology and a pioneer in comparative physiology and experimental morphology ... Hunter remains one of the great all-around biologists like Haller and Johannes Müller, and, with Paré and Lister, one of the three greatest surgeons of all time"—Garrison.


JOHN HUNTER. A Treatise on The Blood, Inflammation and Gun-shot Wounds. To which is prefixed, A Short Account of the Author's Life ... . London, 1794.

4to, half calf. With engraved portrait, 1 unnumbered plate at p. 160, and 8 numbered plates at end.

Lilly Library call number: R 128.7 .H8 1794

This book contains Hunter's classic observations on inflammation and its curative values, and a description of his famous method of operating by tying the artery above the seat of the disease in aneurism. His new method of applying physiology to practical surgery forms the basis of modern pathology.


WILLIAM CHARLES WELLS. An Essay Upon Single Vision with Two Eyes: Together with Experiments and Observations on Several Other Subjects in Optics. London, 1792.

8vo, contemporary half calf.

Lilly Library call number: QP 487 .W4

An attempt to explain the principles of binocular vision, deduced from the theories of Galen, Alhazen, Newton, Robert Smith, et al., and from the experiments worked out by the author. The duration of impressions on the retina and the limits of distinct vision are discussed.


WILLIAM CHARLES WELLS. Two Essays: One Upon Single Vision ... the Other on Dew ... and An Account of a Female of the White Race of Mankind, Part of whose Skin resembles that of a Negro. London, 1818.

8vo, first collected edition, original boards, paper label.

Lilly Library call number: Q 113 .W5

Wells' theory of dew and dew-point, for which he was awarded the Rumford medal, was first published in 1814. However, his lasting claim to fame is his paper, An Account of a Female of the White Race, first (posthumously) published here.

In this paper, Wells not only assumed that there had been a biological evolution of human species, but clearly explained the principle of a natural selection in the course of a struggle for existence and a consequent survival of the fittest. "Darwin was not familiar with Wells' essay when he first published his Origin of Species; but ... it was called to his attention by Charles L. Brace. In the fourth (1866) edition of his great work he inserted into the historical introduction the statement: 'In this paper he (Wells) distinctly recognizes the principle of natural selection, and this is the first recognition which has been indicated' "—DNB.


MATTHEW BAILLIE. The Morbid Anatomy of some of the most important parts of the Human Body. London, 1793.

8vo, old full red calf.

Lilly Library call number: RB 24 .B16

"Not only the first English but, as a matter of fact, the first book in any language treating the subject of pathology as an independent science, capable of cultivation apart from its immediate application to the practice of medicine"—Long.


MATTHEW BAILLIE. A Series of Engravings ... to illustrate The Morbid Anatomy ... of the Human Body. London, 1799-[1802].

4to, quarter leather. Library stamps of the Newcastle Infirmary. The 8 fasciculi which comprise the whole work were issued serially, and the captions to the plates range in date from December, 1798, to December, 1802.

Lilly Library call number: RB 33 .B17

The Morbid Anatomy of 1793 (see above) was later complemented by this series of "beautiful copper-plates by William Clift, John Hunter's famulus ... In each instance, the autopsy is correlated with a full case-history, and the author seems to have grasped the idea that postmortem appearances are only end-results, although such results 'may then become again the cause of many symptoms.' He wisely limited his descriptions, as a rule, to such naked-eye appearances as he actually understood—those in the brain or the viscera—and he did not attempt to deal with the nerves or the spinal cord"—Garrison.


BENJAMIN RUSH. An Account of the Bilious remitting Yellow Fever. Philadelphia, 1794.

8vo, original boards, paper label; uncut.

Lilly Library call number: RC 211 .P5 R75

The first edition of one of the classics of American medicine and one of the best descriptions of an epidemical disease. The author has been rightly described as the American Sydenham because of his meticulous collection of details of case histories before writing on the subject.

"His account of the Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever in 1793 is only approached by that of Mathew Carey for its realism. In fighting this epidemic, Rush played a commendable part, breaking down his health by treating 100 to 150 patients a day. He incurred civic and professional hatred through insisting that the disease was not imported from without but arose de novo in the city. His line of treatment was the exhibition of large doses of calomel and jalop, copious blood-letting, low diet, low temperature in the sick-room, and abundant hydrotherapy within and without. As a blood-letter, Rush has been likened to Sangrado, but he saved many patients, and when down, as he thought, with yellow fever, consistently submitted to his own line of treatment"—Garrison. This report raised him from an eminent local figure to international renown.


BENJAMIN RUSH. Medical Inquiries and Observations, upon The Diseases of the Mind. Philadelphia, 1812.

8vo, original sheep; rebacked.

Lilly Library call number: RC 340 .R952

Hack Tuke says of this work that had Rush written nothing else, it would have given him an enduring name in the republic of medical letters. It is the first American book on psychiatry and shows some appreciation of psychoanalysis. Considering the state of knowledge at that time, it is a remarkable work. Commenting on the "frequent and rapid transition of the mind from one subject to another," he states that "it is said that booksellers have sometimes become deranged from this cause." He might also have added librarians! Among other claims to priority, Rush was a pioneer in advocating the study of veterinary medicine.


ANTONIO SCARPA. Tabulae Neurologicae Ad illustrandum Historiam Anatomicam Cardiacorum Nervorum, Noni Nervorum Cerebri, Glossopharyngaei, et Pharyngaei ex Octavo Cerebri. Pavia, 1794.

Folio, contemporary limp boards, calf back. Dedicated to the Royal Society. With 7 engraved plates, all designed by Scarpa and engraved by Faustino Anderloni; also 7 keyed outline plates illustrating the same subjects.

Lilly Library call number: QM 451 .S3

"Of all medical men who have illustrated their own books, probably none have ever exhibited such striking artistic talent as that brilliant Venetian, Antonio Scarpa ... His greatest work is undoubtedly the magnificent Tabulae Neurologicae, ... which gives the first proper delineation of the nerves of the heart. Executed with the force of genius, and irreproachable in accuracy of detail, Scarpa's illustrations are the crown and flower of achievement in anatomic pen-drawing, while Anderloni's wonderful copperplates of the same are comparable in brio with the work of ... the best period of line-engraving" —Garrison.

VACCINATION Nos. 120-122


EDWARD JENNER. An Inquiry into The Causes and Effects of The Variolae Vaccinae, A Disease ... known by the name of The Cow Pox. London, 1798.

4to, old calf, completely uncut; rebacked. Half-title and errata leaf present.

Lilly Library call number: RC 183 .J51

Jenner established the fact that a "vaccination" or inoculation with vaccinia (cow-pox) lymph matter protects against smallpox. This work, describing 23 successful vaccinations, announced to the world one of the greatest triumphs in the history of medicine.


BENJAMIN WATERHOUSE. A Prospect of Exterminating the Small-Pox; being the History of the Variolae Vaccinae, or Kine-Pox, commonly called the Cow-Pox. "Printed for the author," 1800, and Cambridge, 1802.

2 vols., 8vo and 12mo, new half levant; the title of Vol. II varying somewhat.

Lilly Library call number: RC 183 .W32 P96 vault

These are much rarer than the Jenner (see above). Waterhouse was born at Newport, R.I., studied at Edinburgh and Leyden, and was the first Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine at Harvard.

In 1799 he received a copy of Jenner's Inquiry and published a brief account of it in the Columbian Centinel under the queer title "Something Curious in the Medical Line." It led to his successfully inoculating his own son. Unfortunately in other cases some impure cowpox matter, sometimes mixed with smallpox, caused deaths and violent resentment resulted.

Eventually, with the help of President Jefferson, he won over his opponents. It was through his insistence on maintaining the purity of the vaccine virus that vaccination was finally placed upon a secure scientific basis in the United States.

Lilly also has a beautiful copy, stitched, as issued, of Benjamin Franklin's little known Some Account Of the Success of Inoculation for the Small-pox in England and America, published at London in 1759 (No. 122—RC 183 .F8 vault).


M. F. X. BICHAT. Anatomie Générale, appliquée à la Physiologie et à la Médecine. Paris, An X, [1801].

4 vols., 8vo, contemporary French tree calf.

Lilly Library call number: QM 23 .B6

"One of Medicine's most important books. Bichat revolutionized descriptive anatomy. Where Morgagni and others had conceived of whole organs being diseased, Bichat showed how individual tissues could be separately affected"—Garrison-Morton. Medicine of his period suffered a severe loss by his early death, just after reaching his thirty-first year.


PHILIPPE PINEL. Traité Médico-Philosophique sur l'Aliénation Mentale, ou La Manie. Paris, An IX, [1801].

8vo, marbled boards, calf back. 2 plates and a folding table.

Lilly Library call number: RC 601 .P6

"Pinel was among the first to treat the insane humanely; he dispensed with chains and placed his patients under the care of specially selected physicians. Garrison considers the above book one of the foremost medical classics, giving as it did a great impetus to the humanitarian treatment of the insane. The book was submitted as a prize essay in 1792, the Revolution preventing its publication at that time"—Garrison-Morton. The date of publication is reported by the Encyclopaedia Britannica and various popular biographical compendiums as 1791 but, apart from the definite statement in Garrison-Morton, we have the author's own words in contradiction; at p. 3 of the treatise, in a footnote, he refers to a memoir on the insane communicated in 1791 or 1792 to the Société de Médecine "which has not yet been published."


BENJAMIN SMITH BARTON. Elements of Botany, or Outlines of the Natural History of Vegetables. Philadelphia, 1803.

Thick 8vo, contemporary half calf. 30 plates. The plates are by William Barton, Turpin, and others.

Lilly Library call number: QK 45 .B28

In 1790 "Barton was appointed professor at the University of Pennsylvania of natural history and botany, later transferred to materia medica. On the death of Benjamin Rush in 1813 he succeeded that worthy in the chair of theory and practice of Medicine" —DAB. His chief medical work was on the medicinal plants of the country, much being based on original research.


ROBERT WILLAN. On Cutaneous Diseases. Vol. I [no more published]. London, 1808.

4to, quarter calf, uncut. 33 colored plates, with imprints dating from 1796 to 1808.

Lilly Library call number: RL 61 .W6

"[Willan] was the first physician in this country (i.e., England) to arrange diseases of the skin in a clear and intelligible manner, and fix their nomenclature on a satisfactory and classical basis ... His great work ... was issued in parts ... the last, which Willan lived to see through the press, in 1808"—DNB. The completion of this volume, however, carried Willan only through four of the seven orders mentioned in his introductory remarks. Bateman, his pupil, continued Willan's classification and issued a work "completing the series of engravings begun by that author" in 1817.

"Modern dermatology derives from the work of Willan ... His classification ... was the starting point ... and is still more or less in use"—Garrison.


SIR CHARLES BELL. Idea of A New Anatomy of the Brain: submitted for the Observations of his Friends. [London, 1811.]

12mo, contemporary diced calf.

Lilly Library call number: QM 455 .B4 vault

A presentation copy, "To R. P. Knight, from the author, 34 Soho Square." Of this privately printed little book in which Bell announced his discovery of the distinct functions of the nerves, two copies only were known to Fulton when he discussed it in his Selective Reading in the History of Physiology. These were the British Museum and the U.S. Army Medical Library copies. It has been acclaimed as the greatest discovery in physiology since Harvey.

The book was privately printed in order to obtain the observations of his scientific friends. In December, 1809, he wrote his brother, George Joseph, "Could you get a little tiny book printed for me, of twenty pages of the smallest 8vo?"


SIR CHARLES BELL. The Nervous System of the Human Body. London, 1830.

4to, original cloth, rebacked. 9 plates.

Lilly Library call number: QP 366 .B43

Bell's present fame as a neurologist eclipses his fame as the foremost British anatomist of his day. However, his skill as an anatomist and anatomical artist is amply testified by the quality of the plates in this book, all of which were drawn by him.

The Nervous System incorporates his most important neurological discoveries; the demonstration that the fifth cranial nerve is sensory-motor and the discoveries of Bell's nerve and the motor nerve of the face, lesion of which causes the facial paralysis known as "Bell's palsy." It also includes the first description of myotonia.

Bell, knighted for his physiologic discoveries in 1829, had served as a surgeon at Corunna and Waterloo. From 1836 he held the chair of surgery of Edinburgh.


DOMINIQUE JEAN LARREY. Mémoires de Chirurgie Militaire, et Campagnes. Paris, 1812-17.

4 vols., 8vo, full polished calf, arms stamped in blind on covers. A presentation set, inscribed by the author to Lord Charles Stuart, the British Ambassador to France.

Lilly Library call number: RD 323 .L3

Larrey stands as the greatest military surgeon in history. Napoleon (who left him 10,000 francs in his will) said of him, "C'est l'homme le plus vertueux que j'ai connu." He was with Napoleon in all his great battles and it is said that not even the Emperor himself commanded more love and respect from the soldiers.

During the Napoleonic campaign in Egypt he observed trachoma and was the first to point out the contagious nature of the disease. He was one of the first to amputate at the hip joint, the first to describe the therapeutic effect of maggots on wounds, gave the first description of "trench foot," invented the "ambulance volante," used advanced first-aid posts on the battlefield, and devised several new operations.

Larrey was a magnificent man. Working on the battlefield at Waterloo directly under the fire of the English cannon and impartially attending men of both sides, he was observed by the Duke of Wellington, who was following the fighting from the heights of Mont St. Jean. When told who he was, the "Iron Duke" ordered, "Do not fire on that side, give this brave fellow time to collect his wounded." Captured at the end of the battle and sentenced to death, he was led out for execution but was recognized and released by the enemy Blücher, whose son's life he had saved in a previous campaign.

It is recounted that at the Beresina River he discovered that some necessary and valuable instruments had been left behind. He went back to recover them and, on his return, found that only one bridge remained, filled with a wild, frantic mob, each man bent upon saving himself before that bridge fell. Recognized, however, the retreat was stopped while he was lifted up and passed from shoulder to shoulder safely to the opposite side, while the bridge was being destroyed by artillery fire.

It is sad that war occasions some of the great medical discoveries and noblest conduct of man. It is in peace that the tragedies of a Morton and a Semmelweis occur.


JOHN C. WARREN and JOSIAH FOSTER FLAGG. Anatomical Description of The Arteries of the Human Body ... From the last London Edition. Boston, 1813.

8vo, original boards. 13 plates (of 15, lacking Plates III and IV).

Lilly Library call number: RD 598 .W2

The "coloured engravings, selected and reduced from the Icones of Haller, exhibiting the parts as they appear on dissection," were engraved on wood by Flagg and exhibit the arteries in red against the surrounding areas printed in black, and are probably the first American anatomical illustrations in color. The text was revised by Warren and thus the book brings together the knowledge of that great physician, a co-founder of Massachusetts General, and the original genius of Flagg, anatomical draughtsman, dentist, and pioneer in the development of porcelain false teeth.


JAMES PARKINSON. An Essay on the Shaking Palsy. London, 1817.

8vo, disbound. [2 printed leaves, title and contents] pp. [i]-iv [1]-66 [1]-2 (ads); [A]-I4 K2.

Lilly Library call number: RC 382 .P3 vault

This very rare book contains the classic description of paralysis agitans, known as "Parkinson's disease." Sadly enough this disease has carried off several famed book collectors (notable among them, the late Frank J. Hogan), though its exact relation to bibliomania remains obscure.


JACOB BIGELOW. American Medical Botany ... with Coloured Engravings. Boston, 1817-21.

3 vols. in six parts, 4to, original printed boards, uncut. 60 plates.

Lilly Library call number: QK 99 .B47

Bigelow studied under B. S. Barton, who greatly influenced his career. This work shares with W. P. C. Barton's Vegetable Materia Medica the distinction of being the first botanical work with colored plates of plants issued in the United States; the plates in Bigelow's work are colored by a special process of the author's own invention.


R. T. H. LAENNEC. De l'Auscultation Médiate. Paris, 1819.

2 vols., 8vo, contemporary unlettered wrappers, uncut.

Lilly Library call number: RC 76.3 .L28 vault

A remarkable copy of a remarkable book; the title is listed in three separate entries in Garrison-Morton.

"This work placed its author among the greatest clinicians of all ages"—Garrison. "Auscultation in the instrumental sense dates from Laennec's invention of the stethoscope (at first merely a roll of stiff paper) with a view to amplifying the sound of the heart's action. The publication of this book revolutionized the study of diseases of the thoracic organs"—Garrison-Morton. In a note on p. 11 of Vol. I, the author adopts the name stethoscope in preference to others suggested.

Laennec was himself a victim of tuberculosis, and succumbed to it in his middle forties. An unassuming and modest man, he took greater pride in his skill as a horseman than in his medical discoveries.


M. J. P. FLOURENS. Recherches Expérimentales sur les Propriétés et les Fonctions du Système Nerveux, dans les Animaux vertébrés. Paris, 1824.

Bound with: Expériences sur le Système Nerveux, ... faisant suite aux Recherches Expérimentales. Paris, 1825. 2 vols. in one, 8vo, quarter calf and marbled boards, entirely uncut.

Lilly Library call number: QL 937 .F6

Flourens’ book, a classic in physiology, contains the description of his important observations on "the effects of removal of the cerebrum and cerebellum in pigeons ... These experiments demonstrated that the brain is the organ of thought and of will power, while the cerebellum presides over the coordination of bodily movements"—Garrison.


WILLIAM BEAUMONT. A Case of Wounded Stomach. In: The Medical Recorder. Vol. VIII, No. 1. Philadelphia, January, 1825.

Vol. VIII, Nos. 1-4, bound in one vol., 8vo, contemporary sheep.

Lilly Library call number: R 11 .A65

Beaumont's preliminary report, sent to Surgeon-General Lovell for publication, appears at pp. 14-19. By error, the Surgeon-General himself was accredited with the authorship, a mistake which was corrected by a paragraph in No. 4, at p. 840 of this volume. For once, in the tangled forest of "priority" in medical discoveries, credit was immediately given where it was due.

Beaumont closes this report with the words, "This case affords a most excellent opportunity of experimenting upon the gastric fluids, and the process of digestion ... I may, therefore, be able hereafter to give some interesting experiments on these subjects." The story of how he maintained Alexis St. Martin and studied the digestion through the aperture in his stomach is well known. The resulting publication of Beaumont's Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, and the Physiology of Digestion (Plattsburgh, 1833) gave the world the most important work on this subject before the time of Pavlov. Garrison quotes Vaughan's statement that every physician prescribing for digestive disorders, and every patient benefitted thereby, owes a debt of gratitude to the memory of Beaumont.


RICHARD BRIGHT. Reports of Medical Cases, selected with a view of illustrating The Symptoms and Cure of Diseases, by a reference to Morbid Anatomy. London, 1827-31.

2 vols. in three, 4to, quarter calf and marbled boards. From the Newcastle Infirmary Library, with stamps on title pages and plates.

Lilly Library call number: R 114 .B7 vault

First edition. Vol. I, with 15 colored plates, was published in 1827; Vol. II was published in 1831, in two parts, the second containing 40 plates, many of them colored.

Bright's Reports of Medical Cases, says Garrison, "containing his original description of essential nephritis, with its epoch-making distinction between cardiac and renal dropsy, at once established his reputation all over Europe ... He is one of the greatest of modern pathologists ... As an original delineator of disease, he ranks next to Laennec."


C. S. RAFINESQUE. Medical Flora; or, Manual of the Medical Botany of the United States of North America. Philadelphia, 1828, 1830.

2 vols., 12mo, original calf. 52 plates in the first volume, 48 in the second; all printed in green.

Lilly Library call number: QK 99 .R13

Rafinesque was one of the great pioneers of natural science in America. His life was picturesque in the extreme, and no other American scientist of his time traveled so extensively.

"Rafinesque's most important work was his Medical Flora—which became the vademecum of the Botanic physicians.—It must be remembered that medical treatment was at that time largely based on vegetable drugs and what Rafinesque sought was to write a medical botany adapted to the needs of the American physician and pharmacist"—Packard.


P. C. A. Louis. Recherches anatomiques, pathologiques et thérapeutiques sur la maladie connue sous les noms de Gastro-Entérite, Fièvre Putride, Adynamique, Ataxique, Typhoïde, etc., etc., comparée avec les maladies aigues les plus ordinaries. Paris, 1829.

2 vols., 8vo, contemporary tree calf, gilt back.

Lilly Library call number: RC 187 .L88

"The founder of medical, as distinguished from vital, statistics"—Garrison. "Louis introduced the term 'typhoid fever' in reference to the disturbed mental condition of the patient; he first described the lenticular rose spots. His book established the pathological picture of the disease"—Garrison-Morton.


ASA GRAY. Elements of Botany. New York, 1836.

12mo, original grey cloth.

Lilly Library call number: QK 45 .G7 1836

"One of the great American intellectual feats, which popularized botany in America. Gray was only 26 when he wrote it, but this key work and the other works by him which grew out of it dominated the subject in America for 50 years. Gray's final edition (the ninth) was in 1887, and it is still the standard American reference work. 'The botanist is yet to be born who could write a more clear, compact and accurate account of the flora of any country,' according to William G. Farlow, a botanist of another school, in his obituary account of Gray in the Smithsonian Report for 1888 (Washington, 1890)' "— Grolier Club, One Hundred Influential American Books.


WILLIAM STOKES. A Treatise on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of the Chest. Part I. Diseases of the Lung and Windpipe. Dublin, 1837—.

8vo, original half cloth, paper label, with the half-title.

Lilly Library call number: RC 941 .S8

No more than the first part of this famous work was ever published. "Stokes, most prominent of the Irish School of medicine, established his reputation by his famous work on diseases of the chest. Important among its contents are his discovery of a stage of pneumonia prior to that described by Laennec as the first, ... "—Garrison-Morton.


ROBERT CARSWELL. Pathological Anatomy. Illustrations of the Elementary Forms of Disease. London, 1838.

Folio, bound from the original fasciculi and provided with a title page, in publisher's half morocco binding, gilt edges. 48 colored plates. Together with 2 original drawings, one partially in color and one in black and white, attributed to Carswell, unsigned.

Lilly Library call number: RB 33 .C32

"Probably the greatest of all illustrators of gross pathology"—Garrison. "The plates for his great work on pathological anatomy were furnished from his own drawings and put upon the stone by himself. These illustrations have, for artistic merit and for fidelity, never been surpassed"—Bibliotheca Osleriana, quoting DNB.


THEODOR SCHWANN. Mikroskopische Untersuchungen über die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur und dem Wachsthum der Thiere und Pflanzen. Berlin: Sander, 1839.

12mo, contemporary boards, four folding plates. An autograph presentation copy from the author to Professor Breschet.

Lilly Library call number: QH 581 .S398 1839

Schwann's coordination of previous ideas on cellular construction, and his own researches, produced his classic demonstration that "there is one universal principle of development for the elementary parts of organisms, however different, and that principle is the formation of the cells." This great generalization is a landmark in the history of biology and marks one of the greatest achievements of the century. Here is the beginning of cellular pathology and the actual inauguration of modern biology. T. H. Huxley said: "Histology before 1838, and histology since then are two different sciences—in scope, in purpose, and in dignity."


CARL ROKITANSKY. Handbuch der Pathologischen Anatomie. Vienna, 1842-46.

3 vols., 8vo, original cloth.

Lilly Library call number: RB 24 .R6

"Rokitansky did an enormous amount of pathologic work, and, it is said, had the disposal of between 1500 and 1800 cadavers annually. He made over 30,000 postmortems in his life ... He first described acute dilation of the stomach (1842), left a classic account of ... acute yellow atrophy of the liver, giving the disease its present name ... "—Garrison.

Certain theorizings in this first edition led Rokitansky into conflict with Virchow, who, however, "cordially admitted that, in picturing what was actually before him on the postmortem table, his jolly Viennese rival was the ablest descriptive pathologist of his time"—Garrison. "Jolly" seems hardly the mot juste when applied to Rokitansky, who closed his leave-taking speech as President of the Imperial Academy of Science with the remark that work had always been a pleasure to him and pleasure mostly a toil.

The dates of issue on the Handbuch are confusing until one reads, in Vol. I, the author's plan of composition, which was first to prepare two "special pathologies" and to complete the series with a "general pathology." Therefore we have Vol. II "special" (series Vol. III) dated 1842; Vol. I "special" (series Vol. II) dated 1844 in the second issue; and series Vol. I dated 1846. Each volume has two title pages, that on the left serving for the series and that on the right for the volume.


JOSEF HYRTL. Lehrbuch der Anatomic des Menschen. Prague, 1846.

8vo, quarter calf. With the leaf of advertisements before the half-title.

Lilly Library call number: QM 23 .H98 1846

"The first and greatest teacher of topographic and regional anatomy in the nineteenth century was Joseph Hyrtl, of the New Vienna School ... He was the most fascinating and popular lecturer [on anatomy] in Europe ... Zuckerhandl said: 'He spoke like Cicero and wrote like Heine' ... the unapproachable teacher and technician and one of the greatest of medical philologists ... His famous Lehrbuch (1846) passed through 22 editions, was translated into most languages, and has been pronounced by von Bardeleben as the least soporific of all scientific treatises"—Garrison.

ANAESTHESIA Nos. 145-156


HENRY JACOB BIGELOW. Insensibility during Surgical Operations produced by Inhalation. In: The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Wednesday, November 18, 1846.

8vo, stitched, uncut, as issued.

Lilly Library call number: RD 81 .B5

The first printed account of this celebrated experiment, at the end of which the operating surgeon, Dr. J. C. Warren, hitherto a skeptic, made his classic remark: "Gentlemen, this is no humbug."

"Morton used ether as an anaesthetic for the first time on October 16, 1846, and it became recognized that complete anaesthesia could be produced by the inhalation of ether vapor. Bigelow has left an excellent account in the above paper, which was read before the Boston Society of Medical Improvement on Nov. 9, 1846, an abstract having been previously read before the American Academy of Arts and Sciences on Nov. 3"—Garrison-Morton.

The Lilly file of The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 5 Aug. 1846 to 28 July 1847 (No. 146—RD 81 .A1 B5), containing many of the key papers in the developing controversy, is in numbers, stitched, uncut as issued, and reputedly the only surviving set in this condition. There is also an eight-page pamphlet reprint (Boston? Dec., 1846) of the Bigelow article, stitched, as issued (No. 147—RD 81 .B5). This is the first separate printing of the famous report, although the last seven controversial paragraphs relating to Charles Jackson have been omitted. There is also the printing in the Supplement to the (Hartford) Courant (Saturday, 26 December 1846), in which "we, the people," first heard of the triumph (No. 148—RD 86 .E8 B5). These are numbers 1, 3, and 4 in Fulton.

Other American works on the subject include: John C. Warren's Etherization; with Surgical Remarks (Boston, 1848, RD 86 .E8 W3) and Effects of Chloroform and of Strong Chloric Ether, as narcotic agents (Boston, 1849); the Lilly collection has an issue containing both works, with separate title pages, bound in one volume, original cloth, and presented by the author (Nos. 149—RD 86 .E8 W3, and 150—RD 86 .E8 W3). Other titles in Lilly include Walter Channing's A Treatise on Etherization in Childbirth (No. 151—RG 732 .C4) and Charles T. Jackson's A Manual of Etherization ... comprising, also, A Brief History of the Discovery of Anaesthesia (No. 152—RS 86 .E8 J2), both published at Boston, in 1848 and 1861 respectively.


SIR JAMES Y. SIMPSON. Account of a New Anaesthetic Agent, as a Substitute for Sulphuric Ether in Surgery and Midwifery. Edinburgh, 1847.

23 pp. Bound with:

Answer to the Religious Objections advanced against the Employment of Anaesthetic Agents in Midwifery and Surgery. Edinburgh, 1847.

23 pp.

Anaesthetic Midwifery. Report on its Early History and Progress. Edinburgh, 1848.

54 pp.

On the Duration of Labour as a cause of Mortality and Danger to the Mother and Infant; etc. Edinburgh, 1848.

4 vols., 8vo, stitched together. The first is inscribed to "Dr. Geoghegan with J.Y.S.'s compts," the second "John Purser with B.S.C.'s kindest regards," while the third has "Thos. G. Geoghegan, Esq., M.D., Dublin" written on the title page. On the blank last page of this group of tracts is Dr. Geoghegan's address with some remains of postage stamps (November, 1848).

Lilly Library call number: RD 81 .S5 vault

This extraordinary collection of some of the rarest and most important items in the history of anaesthesia was obviously the property of Thomas Grace Geoghegan, the distinguished Dublin surgeon and Professor of Medical Jurisprudence. His wife was named Frances Anne Purser and she evidently obtained for him the second title which bears the name of one of her relatives. The whole lot, as evidenced by the stamps on the last page, was apparently dispatched to Dr. Geoghegan through the post without any envelope. The first and most important title bears the presentation inscription from Simpson himself.

The first publication of Simpson's work in book form was in America.


SIR JAMES Y. SIMPSON. Anaesthesia, or the Employment of Chloroform and Ether in Surgery, Midwifery, etc. Philadelphia, 1849.

8vo, original black stamped cloth.

Lilly Library call number: RG 732 .S6

Simpson's epoch-making experiments were partially reported in Edinburgh, during 1847 and 1848, in the papers listed earlier, but the present American volume represents his first full-dress exposition of the introduction of anaesthesia for childbirth. It concludes with replies to several of his critics, among whom was Dr. Meigs of Philadelphia.

"To Sir James Y. Simpson belongs the credit for the introduction of modern anaesthesia in medical practice. He first used ether in childbirth on January 19, 1847 ... On February 3, Simpson administered ether in a second case, this time for a forceps delivery, with satisfactory outcome for both mother and child. Early in November, 1847, Simpson began experimenting ... in an attempt to find a better anaesthetic than ether. On November 4 chloroform was tried and was considered far stronger and better than ether. On November 8 Simpson used chloroform for the first time in an obstetrical case ... The use of anaesthesia in childbirth aroused violent opposition from the clergy as well as from some members of the medical profession. Simpson vigorously defended his position against those who quoted the Bible to prove that pain was a foreordained penalty. He quoted in rebuttal Genesis, 2, 21, to show that God was the first anaesthetist, for he had caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam before he removed one of his ribs"—Journal of the History of Medicine, Vol. I, New York, 1946.

Other books on anaesthesia in the Lilly Library besides those mentioned include two of John Snow's, On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether in Surgical Operations (London, 1847, RD 86 .E8 S7) and On Chloroform and Other Anaesthetics: their Action and Administration (London, 1858, RD 81 .S6), both 8vo, in original cloth (Nos. 155 and 156). Snow, a pioneer anaesthetist, delivered Queen Victoria with the administration of chloroform in 1853, an event which went far to force recognition of the new discovery over the violent opposition of the church and many doctors.

The whole strange story of anaesthesia, man's triumph over pain, is studded with tragedy. Crawford W. Long, a Georgia dentist, used ether as an anaesthetic in 1842 but published no account of his discovery until 1849, and has been harshly criticized as "deserving nothing but censure for not having appreciated the value of the agent." Dr. William T. G. Morton, who pioneered in the use of ether, experimenting first on himself and his dog, was hounded to poverty by his opposition, led by a psychopathic doctor named C. T. Jackson, who stole credit for the discovery, and died insane. Horace Wells, an older colleague of Morton's, who had used laughing gas but couldn't get the right dosages, went berserk, hurled vitriol at a girl in a New York street, and cut his own arteries. As Dr. John Fulton wrote of the controversy, a study of it "is likely to end by destroying your faith in human nature."


CLAUDE BERNARD. Du Suc Pancréatique, et de son rôle Dans les Phénomènes de la Digestion. Paris, 1849.

Narrow 8vo, modern half morocco, with a presentation inscription from the author.

Lilly Library call number: QM 353 .B4

Bernard, founder of modern experimental medicine, "no mere physiological experimenter, but 'physiology itself ' " (Garrison), here presents for the first time one of his most important discoveries, the role of the pancreatic juice in the emulsification of fats, conversion of starch, and solvent action on proteids.


CLAUDE BERNARD. Leçons de Physiologie Expérimental Appliquée à la Médecine. Paris, 1855-56.

2 vols., 8vo, original buff printed wrappers, uncut. Numerous woodcut illustrations in text.

Lilly Library call number: R 737 .B55

"Includes his classical work on the function of the liver, pancreas and digestive glands"—Garrison-Morton.


CLAUDE BERNARD. Mémoire sur le Pancréas et sur le Rôle du Suc Pancréatique dans les Phénomènes Digestifs. Paris, 1856.

4to, bound in contemporary quarter green morocco, the original plain wrappers preserved. First printing, offprint from the Comptes Rendus, with 9 plates on 5 folding sheets. The book edition, of the same year, has a title page and was re-paged.

Lilly Library call number: QM 353 .B42

"In 1850 a series of papers on the pancreatic juice began to appear ... which culminated in 1856 in his Mémoire ... a beautifully illustrated quarto volume which is at once a model of scientific writing and a classic in the history of physiology ... It was in fact the problem of digestion which led him on to the pancreas, to the liver and later to the nervous system ... "—Fulton, Physiology.


JOHN SNOW. On the Mode of Communication of Cholera. London, 1849.

8vo, original wrappers. A presentation copy, inscribed by the author.

Lilly Library call number: RC 126 .S6 vault


JOHN SNOW. On the Mode of Communication of Cholera. London, 1855.

Second edition. 8vo, original cloth. A presentation copy, inscribed by the author.

Lilly Library call number: RC 126 .S6 1855 vault

"The water-borne character of cholera was demonstrated for the first time by Snow, who collected data regarding a large number of outbreaks and correlated them with water supplies"—Garrison-Morton, describing the first edition. The statement, first appearing in the 1849 edition, is fortified with many additional instances and sufficient new material to make the second edition a virtually new work. The second edition is the first to describe the epidemic of 1854, which Snow put an end to by telling the vestrymen of St. James to remove the handle of the Broad Street pump!


DANIEL DRAKE. A Systematic Treatise, Historical, Etiological, and Practical, on the Principal Diseases of the Interior Valley of North America ... . Cincinnati, 1850.

Together with: A Systematic Treatise ... Second Series. Cincinnati, 1854. 2 vols., thick 8vo, contemporary sheep of varying colors; the first series rebacked. Maps and tables. The second series, issued posthumously, was edited by Drs. S. Hanbury Smith and Francis G. Smith.

Lilly Library call number: RA 802 .D76

An inscription inside the front cover of the first series records that this copy was presented to the Cincinnati Medical Library Association by the author 7 Feb. 1852; he died in November of the same year. Stapled inside the back cover of this volume is an excerpt from the Western Journal, Vol. III, No. IV, dated 1 April 1836, by Drake, announcing his plans for preparation of this treatise.

The DAB says of this book, "It is a mine of information on the topography, meteorology, character of population, customs and diseases, of the interior of North America." Garrison characterizes Drake as "the greatest medical geographer after Hippocrates," and Garrison-Morton describes the work as "the most important ... on the natural history of malaria published up to that time."

Garrison-Morton incorrectly gives the date of the second series as 1855.


THOMAS ADDISON. On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Supra-Renal Capsules. London, 1855.

4to, original green cloth, complete with half-title, title, leaf of dedication, leaf of preface, 43 pp. text and 11 colored plates.

Lilly Library call number: RC 659 .A3

This contains the first description of "Addison's Disease" in book form (it was first mentioned by him in a paper read before the South London Medical Society in 1849) and of pernicious anemia, later renamed "Addisonian anoemia" by Trousseau. It inaugurated the study of the diseases of the ductless glands and of those disturbances of chemical equilibrium known as pluri-glandular syndromes. It is one of the few works in the history of medicine where two important new discoveries and diseases were described in one book.


HENRY GRAY. Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical. London, 1858.

8vo, original cloth, with many engravings in the text.

Lilly Library call number: QM 23 .G7 1858

English anatomy sustained a grave loss in the early death of Henry Gray (1825-1861). His textbook of anatomy remains today the standard work on the subject in the English-speaking world. The first American edition was published at Philadelphia, 1859.

For some obscure reason, Gray does not appear in DNB.


FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. Notes on Matters affecting the Health, Efficiency, and Hospital Administration of the British Army, founded chiefly on the experiences of the late war. London, 1858.

2 vols., thick 8vo, original blue printed wrappers.

Lilly Library call number: UH 258 1853-1856 .N5

Sir Edward Cook writes of this book that "it is, I suppose, the least known but the most remarkable of her works. It is little known because it was never published." It was the threat of its appalling revelations of official incompetence which she held over the head of Lord Panmure, saying that if the Royal Commission was not appointed, she would publish it. Cook goes on, "But at her own expense she printed the Notes for private circulation among influential people, and upon all who read it the work produced, as well it might, a profound impression." It was these volumes which formed the basis for the subsequent report of the Royal Commission and for all the administrative and nursing reforms in the Army which are associated with her name.


FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE. Notes on Nursing: what it is, and what it is not. London, [1860].

8vo, original black limp cloth.

Lilly Library call number: RT 51 .N68

A popular abridgement of the detailed study above, with added practical suggestions for home nursing; an enormously successful work, reaching many editions.

Among the Library's holdings is a copy of the first issue, without the notice concerning translation on the title page and without ads on the endpapers; this copy is of particular interest, having two presentations, one lettered in gold on the front cover "Miss Bevington ... from Florence Nightingale" and one inscribed on the front endpaper by her mother to the Rev. W. Chawner. The Lilly collection includes two copies of later issues, one with the notice concerning translation on the title page and one without, both with publisher's ads on the endpapers advertising compilations and reference works for 1860.


RUDOLF VIRCHOW. Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf physiologische und pathologische Gewebelehre. Berlin, 1858.

8vo, original wrappers, uncut.

Lilly Library call number: RB 25 .V8 vault

"In 1858 a young man of 37 gave a series of lectures in Berlin to a group of medical men. These lectures, later published under the title of Die Cellularpathologie, ushered in a new epoch. The young man was Rudolf Virchow. He has been acclaimed, perhaps a little extravagantly, as the greatest figure in medicine since Hippocrates. By applying the cell theory of Schleiden and Schwann to pathology he transferred medicine from its ancient foundation on the four humours of the Greeks to a new foundation, the fundamental unit of modern biology, the cell, and transformed pathology itself into a modern science. At the same time in the same book, he established the dictum 'omnis cellula e cellula,' which has proved to be one of the most important axioms of biology. Thus in these lectures we find epitomized the interaction between medicine and biology which has repeatedly contributed to the advancement of both"—Professor J. Walter Wilson; Journal History of Medicine, Spring, 1947. Virchow was also the first to write on medicine in relation to the fine arts.


LOUIS PASTEUR. Mémoire sur la Fermentation Alcoolique. Paris, 1860.

8vo, original printed wrappers.

Lilly Library call number: QR 151 .P36 vault

A presentation copy to Armand Fizeau, eminent French physicist, who had just become a member of the French Academy.

In 1854 Pasteur was made professor and dean of the new faculty of sciences at Lille, a center for the manufacture of beet-root alcohol. One of the manufacturers, who was having trouble with production, came to the young man for assistance. Thus, by chance, Pasteur's interest was turned to the investigation of fermentation. It was a new field to the young chemist, who had made his reputation studying crystals. But, as he had remarked in his inaugural address at Lille, "Dans les champs de 1'observation, le hasard ne favorise que les esprits préparés."

His study of the fermentation of alcohol revived the old controversy regarding spontaneous generation which he disproved in his crucial experiment, which suggested antisepsis to Lister.

The Lilly Library's holdings of Pasteur's works (many being presentation copies) are extensive.


JOSEPH TOYNBEE. The Diseases of the Ear: their Nature, Diagnosis, and Treatment. London, 1860.

8vo, cloth and marbled boards. With numerous illustrations in text.

Lilly Library call number: RF 120 .T6

"A medical classic by the 'Father of British Otology.' In this book Toynbee described the method of removing the temporal bone and discussed the postmortem appearance in relation to the symptoms observed during life. He made over 2,000 dissections of the ear"—Garrison-Morton.

"He raised aural surgery from a neglected condition of quackery to a recognized position as a legitimate branch of surgery. As a philanthropist the English public owe him a debt of gratitude, for he ardently advocated the improvement of working men's dwellings and surroundings at a time when the duties of government in regard to public health were hardly beginning to be appreciated. He died (aged 51) from the accidental inhalation of chloroform, with which he was making experiments to discover a means of mitigating the intense suffering upon certain inflammatory conditions of the middle ear"—DNB.


JOHN HILTON. On the Influence of Mechanical and Physiological Rest in the treatment of Accidents and Surgical Diseases, and the Diagnostic Value of Pain. London, 1863.

8vo, original cloth.

Lilly Library call number: RM 736 .H6

"John Hilton was Surgeon to Guy's Hospital. He suggested that symptoms are disordered reflexes, and advocated complete rest in the treatment of surgical disorders of all parts of the body. His book [is] a surgical classic still in demand among students"— Garrison-Morton.


FRANCIS PEYRE PORCHER. Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests, Medical, Economical, and Agricultural. Being also a Medical Botany of the Confederate States. Charleston, 1863.

8vo, original quarter black morocco. A presentation copy, "Mr. H. W. Ravenel with the regards of his friend the Author. April, 1863. En témoignage de Reconnaissance—"

Lilly Library call number: SB 108 .U6 S76 1863

Undertaken by direction of the Confederate Surgeon General "for which purpose the author was released temporarily from service in the field and hospital" (he served throughout the war as a surgeon). After the war, Dr. Porcher returned to his Charleston practice and later became Vice-President of the A.M.A.

The work is generally found with a Richmond, Va., imprint. The Lilly copy of this issue is bound in quarter roan (No. 172—SB 108 .U6 S76 1863a).


JOSEPH LISTER. Observations on Ligature of Arteries on the Antiseptic System ... From the Lancet. Edinburgh, 1869.

8vo, disbound. With paster below imprint, "Corrected February 1870. See Page 13." At p. 13, beginning with the third paragraph, the original offwhite text paper cut away and mounted on the first of two sheets of lighter and whiter paper inserted as cancels. The corrected text concerns the preparation of catgut ligatures.

Lilly Library call number: RD 91 .L5

The pamphlet recounts the use of silk and catgut ligatures in two experiments upon animals and in one case of femoral aneurism in the human body. Lister at this time developed a carbolized catgut ligature superior to any previously produced, leading to his later introduction of their regular use in vascular surgery.


JOSEPH LISTER. Remarks on a Case of Compound Dislocation of the Ankle ... illustrating the Antiseptic System of Treatment. Edinburgh, 1870.

Bound with:

JOSEPH LISTER. On the Effects of The Antiseptic System of Treatment upon the Salubrity of a Surgical Hospital. Edinburgh, 1870.

2 vols. bound in one, 8vo, modern boards. Both inscribed "From the Author" on the title page, but not in Lister's hand.

Lilly Library call number: RD 91 .L6

Both papers are of interest in the early history of antiseptic surgery, adopted by Lister in 1867. The first details the original treatment and subsequent care and dressing of a compound injury, and the second derives early statistics on mortality after amputation before and after adoption of antiseptic procedures.

"To Listerism are due all modern developments of the surgery of the hollow cavities of the body," says Garrison, noting further that all the "elaborate rituals" of modern aseptic surgery had their beginnings in his antiseptic concepts.


PAUL BERT. La Pression Barométrique. Paris, 1878.

8vo, original cloth.

Lilly Library call number: QP 82 .B45

This treatise considers both diminution and augmentation of pressure, and sudden changes in either condition, in their effect upon man and other animals. Bert proved that high altitude sickness was due to insufficient aeration of the blood and suspected the chemical changes due to compression. Apart from its medical value, the book is interesting in its accounts of alpinism and of early diving equipment.


SIR WILLIAM OSLER. The Principles and Practice of Medicine. New York, 1892.

8vo, half morocco. Second issue, with the corrected spelling "Gorgias" at p. vi.

Lilly Library call number: RC 46 .O8 1892

Osler has given a full account of the preparation of this textbook in his Bibliotheca, entry 3544. One of the far-reaching results of his book was completely unexpected. F. T. Gates, Baptist clergyman, was a trusted aide of John D. Rockefeller. He was so impressed with the work, believing that the study of the causes and prevention of disease offered the greatest field of service to mankind, that he conceived the idea of the famed Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.

"Osler's text-book was the best English work on medicine of its time. He became Regius professor of medicine at Oxford in 1904. Besides being one of the greatest of all clinicians, he was possessed of a fine literary style and an extensive knowledge of medical bibliography. Garrison has written of him: 'When he came to die he was, in a very real sense, the greatest physician of our time ... Good looks, distinction, blithe, benignant manners, a sunbright personality, radiant with kind feeling and good will toward his fellow men, an Apollonian poise, swiftness and surety of thought and speech, every gift of the gods was his; and to these were added careful training, unsurpassed clinical ability, the widest knowledge of his subject, the deepest interest in everything human, and a serene hold upon his fellows that was as a seal set upon them"—Garrison-Morton. The Lilly collection of Osler is extensive.


WILLIAM MACEWEN. Pyogenic Infective Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord: Meningitis, Abscess of Brain, Infective Sinus Thrombosis. Glasgow, 1893.

8vo, original cloth.

Lilly Library call number: RD 594 .M2

In this book, which appeared the year after his appointment as professor of surgery at Glasgow, Macewen, according to Garrison, "sums up his brilliant work on the surgery of the brain and spinal chord."


JEAN MARTIN CHARCOT AND JEAN ALBERT PITRES. Les Centres Moteurs Corticaux chez l'Homme. Paris, 1895.

8vo, original black limp leather.

Lilly Library call number: QM 451 .C6

Charcot, one of the most dramatic and interesting teachers of his time, created the greatest clinic in Europe for the study of nervous diseases and did valuable research on senile and chronic diseases.

Pitres first suggested deep alcohol injections in neuralgia.


CHARLES LOUIS ALPHONSE LAVERAN. Traité du Paludisme. Paris, 1898.

8vo, contemporary half cloth, leather label, uncut.

Lilly Library call number: RC 156 .L3 1898

Laveran was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1907 "for his work on the part played by protozoa in the generation of disease." The protozoic diseases include malaria, dysentery, sleeping sickness, etc., and among Laveran's many contributions to their etiology the most sensational, undoubtedly, was his discovery of the parasites of malarial fever.


J. P. PAVLOV. Die Arbeit der Verdauungsdrüsen ... Aus dem Russischen von Dr. A. Walther. Wiesbaden, 1898.

8vo, original cloth. With illustrations in the text.

Lilly Library call number: QP 145 .P338 G3

This first appearance in German is the first translation of this classic, which was published the year before in the original Russian. Garrison-Morton describes the Russian first edition, and goes on to say, "Pavlov made perhaps the greatest contribution to our knowledge of the physiology of digestion. Especially notable was his method of producing gastric and pancreatic fistulae for the purpose of his experiments." That dog, and those conditioned reflexes!


ELIE METCHNIKOFF. L'Immunité dans Les Maladies Infectieuses. Paris, 1901.

8vo, original wrappers, uncut and partially unopened.

Lilly Library call number: QR 181 .M4

Metchnikoff was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1908 for his work on immunity. The best-known feature of his investigations into specific antibacterial immunity is his discovery of the "phagocytes" in the blood and the fact that inflammation is caused by the struggle between phagocytes and intruding bacteria. His theory, in the hands of Sir Alworth Wright and others, led to vaccinotherapy.


KAREL FREDERIK WENCKEBACH. Die Arhythmie als Ausdruck bestimmter Funktionsstörungen des Herzens. Leipzig, 1903.

8vo, marbled boards, cloth back. With 7 folding plates at the end.

Lilly Library call number: RC 685 .A65 W5

Wenckebach was the first to demonstrate the value of quinine in the treatment of paroxysmal fibrillation. The present work contains a number of excellent descriptions of various forms of cardiac arrhythmia.


SIGMUND FREUD. Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens. Berlin, 1904.

8vo, marbled boards.

Lilly Library call number: BF 173 .F8

In this important work, Freud "subjected to scrutiny such phenomena as slips of the tongue, 'accidental' forgetting, and various other mistakes and involuntary awkwardnesses which give evidence of the dynamic power of the unconscious and of how unexpectedly it can gain control of our conscious will"—G. Zilboorg, S. Freud.


CLEMENS PETER PIRQUET. Klinische Studien über Vakzination und vakzinale Allergie. Leipzig & Vienna, 1907.

8vo, half leather. With 49 figures in text, and a colored plate. Bookplate and stamp of R. Massini, a Swiss physician.

Lilly Library call number: QR 185 .P5

Pirquet made extensive studies in anaphylaxis, and was the first to suggest the term "allergy."


HARVEY CUSHING. The Pituitary Body and its Disorders. Clinical States Produced by Disorders of the Hypophysis Cerebri. Philadelphia and London, 1912.

Tall 8vo, original cloth.

Lilly Library call number: RC 658 .C8

"Cushing, outstanding neurological surgeon of the present century, added much to our knowledge of the pituitary body and its disorders. The above work includes a description of his own method of operating on the pituitary. He assumed that in diabetes insipidus the pituitary was involved"—Garrison-Morton.

Cushing and Fulton, following in Osler's footsteps, were distinguished collectors of medical works. It is notable that, as a class, doctors tend to suffer, far more than other professional groups, from bibliomania. Osler was so fond of bibliography that he used Conrad Gesner's Bibliotheca Universalis as one of the models for his own Bibliotheca Osleriana. He placed Gesner in the most important section ("Bibliotheca prima"), and once remarked, "I am not sure that this fellow should go into 'Prima', but I love him so much that I must put him there. Besides, he is the father of Bibliography"—Osler, op. cit., p. 63.


CASIMIR FUNK. Die Vitamine: ihre Bedeutung für die Physiologie und Pathologie ... . Wiesbaden, 1914.

8vo, original blue printed wrappers. 2 colored plates.

Lilly Library call number: QP 801 .V5 F8

Funk, a Polish chemist, found that yeast was effective in treating beriberi. He postulated his theory of the existence of unknown but essential factors in diet in 1912, and in this work proposed the name "Vitamine," thinking the essential substances were amines. Later it was discovered that they were not all amines, and in order not to perpetuate Funk's error, the name "vitamin" has been adopted.


FRED H. ALBEE. Bone-Graft Surgery. Philadelphia and London, 1915.

8vo, original cloth.

Lilly Library call number: RD 118 .A5

"Albee was the first to employ living bone grafts as internal splints. He used cutting machines and saws to make inlaid, perfectly fitting grafts"—Garrison-Morton.

INSULIN Nos. 188, 189


SIR FREDERICK G. BANTING AND CHARLES H. BEST. The Internal Secretion of the Pancreas. In: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, Vol. VII, No. 5. St. Louis, February, 1922.

8vo, original wrappers.

Lilly Library call number: QP 951 .B34

The first report on the work which eventually led to the isolation of insulin was made by Banting, Best, and their associate, Macleod, at a meeting of the American Physiological Society, 28 Dec. 1921. The present paper deals in detail with their experiments in reducing blood sugar in animals by the injection of extracts from the pancreas. It closes with intimations of success in the chemical identification of the active principal involved and cautions that the process is not yet ready for clinical use.


SIR FREDERICK G. BANTING. Les Prix Nobel en 1924-1925. Diabetes and Insulin. Nobel Lecture delivered at Stockholm on September 15th 1925. Stockholm, 1925.

8vo, original printed wrappers. Presentation copy, inscribed on the front cover to Mr. (Eli) Lilly by Banting.

Lilly Library call number: QP 951 .B2

Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine for the discovery of insulin. Banting here recounts the development of a methodology for mass production of insulin, with case histories of patients benefitted by its use.

The Lilly Company of Indianapolis was associated from the beginning with the production and distribution of insulin. Our collection of the early history of the subject is extensive.


RUDOLPH MAGNUS. Körperstellung. Berlin, 1924.

8vo, original wrappers. With many photographs in text.

Lilly Library call number: QP 471 .M2

"A classical work on posture, a subject upon which Magnus spent many years of study. He demonstrated among other things that the labyrinth is the one sense organ entirely concerned with posture and equilibrium"—Garrison-Morton.

In the History of Medicine, Garrison refers to this work as "monumental" and describes its "exhaustive experimental consideration of static reflexes (posing and righting of the body) and the stato-kinetic reactions to rotation, progressive and partial movements."

With weightlessness and other physical problems of manned space flight upon us, the importance of this basic research becomes daily more apparent.


HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER. Artificial Transmutation of the Gene. In: Science, New Series, Vol. LXVI. New York, 22 July 1927.

Lilly Library call number: Z 881 .I394 A2 Box 9 no.42

Together with:


HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER. The Production of Mutations by X-Rays. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 9. Easton, Pa., 15 Sept. 1928.

2 vols., 8vo, cloth.

Lilly Library call number: Z 881 .I394 A2 Box 9 no.45

The first appearances in print on the subject which won Dr. Muller the Nobel Prize in 1946. His work in genetics on the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), early produced quantitative results which led to further investigations. Dr. Muller has been Professor of Zoology at Indiana University since 1945.


SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING. On the Antibacterial Action of Cultures of a Penicillium. [London, 1944.]

Square 8vo, 12 pp. Illustrations and tables.

Lilly Library call number: RS 165 .P3 F48

The original announcement of the properties of penicillin was made in The British Journal of Experimental Pathology, Vol. X (1929), pp. 226 et seq. At the time, according to the printers, 150 offprints with printed orange wrappers were supplied to Fleming, paged as in the Journal printing. The same printers, in 1944, supplied the author with 250 more offprints, paged from 1 to 12 and without covers. The present copy is of this printing.

In spite of the tremendous possibilities opened up by the original announcement, the medical potential of penicillin was not developed for ten years, when its importance in handling the medical crisis of a great war became apparent. Fleming shared the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1945 with Florey and Chain, who perfected its medical use.


HOWARD W. FLOREY AND OTHERS. Antibiotics. A Survey of Penicillin, Streptomycin, and other Antimicrobial Substances from Fungi, Actinomycetes, Bacteria, and Plants. London, 1949.

2 vols., large 8vo, original cloth. Illustrated.

Lilly Library call number: RS 161 .A55

Six other names are associated with Florey's in the authorship of this work, among them that of Ernest Chain, who assisted Florey in developing the medical uses of penicillin. The book is the first extended and informed statement on the new sources of antibiotics. The historical introduction is drawn in part from Fleming's early papers.


JONAS E. SALK AND OTHERS. The Use of Adjuvants to Facilitate Studies on the Immunologic Classification of Poliomyelitis Viruses. In: The American Journal of Hygiene, Vol. 54, No. 2. Baltimore, September, 1951.

8vo, cloth.

James Lewis, J. S. Youngner, and Byron L. Bennett were associated with Dr. Salk in the authorship of this paper and of two other papers contributed to the same issue of the Journal, both on immunologic classification. Dr. Salk also assisted in the preparation of the reports on classification by the Committee on Typing of the National Foundation, also printed here.

The Lilly firm is the largest producer of the "Salk vaccine" in the world.


Beginning with the publication, Discovery, exhibit catalogs and reports from the Lilly Library are numbered consecutively. A list of the unnumbered publications (most are out of print) published previous to this numbered series follows:

Eleven hundred fifty copies of this catalog have been printed. The text is in 10-, 11-, and 12-point Baskerville.

The catalog was designed by the Office of University Publications. This exhibit was prepared and the descriptive notes written for the catalog by David A. Randall, assisted by J. Q. Bennett.

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